BIO-1120: Chapter 1

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BIO-1120: Chapter 1
2014-12-15 12:33:58
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  1. Evolution
    descent with modification; the idea that living species are descendants of ancestral species that were different from the present day ones; also defined more narrowly as the change in the genetic composition of a population from generation to generation
  2. Biology
    the scientific study of life
  3. Ecosystem
    all the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic factors with which they interact; one or more communities and the physical environment around them
  4. Community
    all the organisms that inhabit a particular area; an assemblage of populations of different species living close enough together for potential interaction
  5. Population
    a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area and interbreed, producing fertile offspring
  6. Organism
    an individual living thing
  7. Organ
    a specialized center of body function composed of several different types of tissues
  8. Tissue
    an integrated group of cells with a common structure, function, or both
  9. Cell
    life's fundamental unit of structure and function
  10. Organelles
    any of several membrane-enclosed structure with specialized functions, suspended in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells
  11. Molecule
    two or more atoms held together by convalent bonds
  12. Emergent Properties
    new properties that arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases
  13. Systems Biology
    an approach to studying biology that aims to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems based on a study of the interactions among the system's parts
  14. Eukaryotic Cell
    a type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Organisms with eukaryotic cells (protists, plants, fungi, and animals) are called eukaryotes
  15. Prokaryotic Cell
    a type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Organisms with prokaryotic cells (bacteria and archaea) are called prokaryotes
  16. DNA
    (deoxyribonucleic acid) a nucleic acid molecule, usually a double-stranded helix, in which each polynucleotide strand consists of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous base adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T); capable of being replicated and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins
  17. Genes
    a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses)
  18. Nucleotides
    the building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and one or more phosphate groups
  19. Gene Expression
    the process by which information enclosed in DNA directs the synthesis of proteins, or, in some cases, RNAs that are not translated into proteins and instead function as RNAs.
  20. Genome
    the genetic material of an organism or virus; the complete complement of an organism's or virus's genes along with its noncoding nucleic acid sequences
  21. Genomics
    the systematic study of whole sets of genes (or other DNA) and their interactions within a species, as well as genome comparisons between species
  22. Proteomics
    the systematic study of sets of proteins and their properties, including their abundance, chemical modifications, and intercations
  23. Proteome
    the entire set of proteins expressed by a given cell or group of cells
  24. Bioinformatics
    the use of computers, software, and mathematical models to process and integrate biological information from large data sets
  25. Producers
    an organism that produces organic compounds from CO2 by harnessing light energy (in photosynthesis) or by oxidizing inorganic chemicals (in chemosynthetic reactions carried out by some prokaryotes)
  26. Consumers
    an organism that feeds on producers, other consumers, or nonliving organic material
  27. Feedback Regulation
    the regulation of a process by its output or end product
  28. Negative Feedback
    a form of regulation in which accumulation of an end product of a process slows the process; in physiology, a primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a variable triggers a response that counteracts the initial change
  29. Positive Feedback
    a form of regulation in which an end product of a process speeds up that process; in physiology, a control mechanism in which a change in a variable triggers a response that reinforced or amplifies the change
  30. Bacteria
    One of two prokaryotic domains, the other being Archaea
  31. Archaea
    One of two prokaryotic domains, the other being Bacteria
  32. Eukarya
    the domain that includes all eukaryotic organisms
  33. Natural Selection
    a process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits
  34. Inquiry
    the search for information and explanation, often focusing on specific questions
  35. Data
    recorded observations
  36. Inductive Reasoning
    a type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large number of specific observations
  37. Hypothesis
    a testable explanation for a set of observations based on the available data and guided by inductive reasoning. a hypothesis is narrower in scope than a theory
  38. Deductive Reasoning
    a type of logic in which specific results are predicted from a general premise
  39. Experiement
    a scientific test, carried out under controlled conditions, involving manipulations of one or more factors in a system in order to see the effects of those changes
  40. Variables
    a factor that varies in an experiment or other tetst
  41. Controlled Experiment
    an experiment in which an experimental group is compared with a control group that varies only in the factor being tested
  42. Theory
    an explanation that is broader in scope than a hypothesis, generates new hypotheses, and is supported by a large body of evidence
  43. Model Organism
    a particular species chosen for research into broad biological principles because it is representative of a larger group and usually easy to grow in a lab
  44. Technology
    the application of scientific knowledge for a specific purpose, often involving industry or commerce but also including uses in basic research