9th Grade - Biology - Evolution
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9th Grade - Biology - Evolution
What was the name of the ship Darwin sailed?
Why was Darwin's work so important?
It revealed that the living world changes continuously.
Darwin focused on what 3 patterns of diversity?
1. Species vary globally
2. Species vary locally
3. Species vary over time
History of life as documented in fossils
What was Darwin's observation about "species vary globally?"
He noticed that different, yet ecologically similar, species inhabited separated, but ecologically similar habitats around the world.
Fossils that exist for a short period of time
All life on earth shares a single, common ancestor.
Study of embryo development
Structure that have no function but still exist.
Similar structure used for different functions
Features of different species that are similar in function
The study of where different species live.
Geographic Distribution (biogeography)
The flow of alleles due to migration
The change in genetic material of a cell
When gametes from 2 parents join therefore increasing genetic variation
Gene Shuffling (recombination)
What are the 4 parts of Natural Selection
1. Variation exists
2. Organisms compete
3. More offspring are produced then can survive.
4. Environments selects organisms with beneficial traits.
A mechanism that prevents different populations from interbreeding
Barriers that prevent members of the population from mating with each other.
When a population has a specific way to find mates
When an organism is active at different times of the day or have different seasons for breeding
Seasonal behavior resulting in movement from one environment to another
A random change in allele frequency (it decreases variation)
A form of natural selection in which individuals at one end of the curve have a higher fitness then at the other end.
A form of selection in which individuals near the center of the curve have a higher fitness then at the ends
Natural Selection in which individuals at both ends of the curve have a higher fitness then the ones in the middle.
Related species become less alike
Process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments
The evolution of 2 species based on their interaction with one another.
A single ancestral population gives rise to a large number of new species
The pattern of evolution in which long stable periods are interrupted by brief periods of more rapid change.
The complete die out of an entire species
What are the 5 conditions to Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
1. No mutations
2. No migration
3. All mating is random
4. Infinitely large populations
5. No natural Selection
When the diversity in a species decreases
How well an organism can survive and reproduce in an environment
Can by physical, behavioral, and physiological changes that help animals survive.
Full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and uses their conditions.
A diagram depicting patterns of shared characteristics among species
A population not evolving and allele frequencies in gene pool do not change.
Consists of all genes present in a population.
A trait controlled by 2 or more genes
A population or group whose members interbreed and produce offspring
A situation in which allele frequencies change as a result of migration of a small subgroup of a population.
Process by which new species are formed.
A period of time in which a species exhibits limited morphological change
Developed the 2 word naming system called binomial nomenclature and developed the branching classification system
Concluded that the earth was much older than a few thousand years.
Reasoned that if human population grew unchecked there would not be enough food and living space for everyone
Suggested that individual organisms could change during their lifetime by not using various parts of their body. Developed radioactive carbon dating
Argued that laws of nature are consistent over time.
Developed the theory of evolution
Writer of an essay Darwin read that agreed with his thoughts
Suggested that organic compounds necessary for life could have arisen from simpler compounds on a primitive earth
Stanley Miller and Harold Urey
Changes occur gradually over time
Many species vanish at one time