9th Grade - Biology - Evolution

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  1. What was the name of the ship Darwin sailed?
    HMS Beagle
  2. Why was Darwin's work so important?
    It revealed that the living world changes continuously.
  3. Darwin focused on what 3 patterns of diversity?
    • 1.  Species vary globally
    • 2.  Species vary locally
    • 3.  Species vary over time
  4. Vocab:

    History of life as documented in fossils
    Fossil Record
  5. What was Darwin's observation about "species vary globally?"
    He noticed that different, yet ecologically similar, species inhabited separated, but ecologically similar habitats around the world.
  6. Vocab:

    Fossils that exist for a short period of time
    Transitional Fossils
  7. Vocab:

    All life on earth shares a single, common ancestor.
    Common Descent
  8. Vocab:

    Study of embryo development
  9. Vocab:

    Structure that have no function but still exist.
    Vestigial Structure
  10. Vocab:

    Similar structure used for different functions
    Homologous Structure
  11. Vocab:

    Features of different species that are similar in function
    Analogous Structures
  12. Vocab:

    The study of where different species live.
    Geographic Distribution (biogeography)
  13. Vocab:

    The flow of alleles due to migration
    Gene Flow
  14. Vocab:

    The change in genetic material of a cell
  15. Vocab: 

    When gametes from 2 parents join therefore increasing genetic variation
    Gene Shuffling (recombination)
  16. What are the 4 parts of Natural Selection
    1.  Variation exists

    2.  Organisms compete

    3.  More offspring are produced then can survive.

    4.  Environments selects organisms with beneficial traits.
  17. Vocab:

    A mechanism that prevents different populations from interbreeding
    Reproductive Isolation
  18. Vocab:

    Barriers that prevent members of the population from mating with each other.
    Geographic Isolation
  19. Vocab:

    When a population has a specific way to find mates
    Behavioral Isolation
  20. Vocab:

    When an organism is active at different times of the day or have different seasons for breeding
    Temporal Isolation
  21. Vocab:

    Seasonal behavior resulting in movement from one environment to another
  22. Vocab:

    A random change in allele frequency (it decreases variation)
    Genetic Drift
  23. Vocab: 

    A form of natural selection in which individuals at one end of the curve have a higher fitness then at the other end.
    Directional Selection
  24. Vocab:

    A form of selection in which individuals near the center of the curve have a higher fitness then at the ends
    Stabilizing Selection
  25. Vocab:

    Natural Selection in which individuals at both ends of the curve have a higher fitness then the ones in the middle.
    Disruptive Selection
  26. Vocab:

    Related species become less alike
    Divergent Evolution
  27. Vocab:

    Process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments
    Convergent Evolution
  28. Vocab:

    The evolution of 2 species based on their interaction with one another.
  29. Vocab:

    A single ancestral population gives rise to a large number of new species
    Adaptive Radiation
  30. Vocab:

    The pattern of evolution in which long stable periods are interrupted by brief periods of more rapid change.
    Punctuated Equilibrium
  31. Vocab:

    The complete die out of an entire species
  32. What are the 5 conditions to Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
    • 1.  No mutations
    • 2.  No migration
    • 3.  All mating is random
    • 4.  Infinitely large populations
    • 5.  No natural Selection
  33. Vocab:

    When the diversity in a species decreases
    Bottleneck Effect
  34. Vocab:

    How well an organism can survive and reproduce in an environment
  35. Vocab:

    Can by physical, behavioral, and physiological changes that help animals survive.
  36. Vocab:

    Full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and uses their conditions.
  37. Vocab:

    A diagram depicting patterns of shared characteristics among species
  38. Vocab:

    A population not evolving and allele frequencies in gene pool do not change.
    Genetic Equilibrium
  39. Vocab:

    Consists of all genes present in a population.
    Gene Pool
  40. Vocab:

    A trait controlled by 2 or more genes
    Polygenic Traits
  41. Vocab:

    A population or group whose members interbreed and produce offspring
  42. Vocab:

    A situation in which allele frequencies change as a result of migration of a small subgroup of a population.
    Founder Effect
  43. Vocab:

    Process by which new species are formed.
  44. Vocab:

    A period of time in which a species exhibits limited morphological change
  45. Scientist:

    Developed the 2 word naming system called binomial nomenclature and developed the branching classification system
    Carolus Linnaeus
  46. Scientist:

    Concluded that the earth was much older than a few thousand years.
    James Hutton
  47. Scientist:

    Reasoned that if human population grew unchecked there would not be enough food and living space for everyone
    Thomas Malthus
  48. Scientist:

    Suggested that individual organisms could change during their lifetime by not using various parts of their body.  Developed radioactive carbon dating
    Jean Lamarck
  49. Scientist:

    Argued that laws of nature are consistent over time.
    Charles Lyell
  50. Scientist:

    Developed the theory of evolution
    Charles Darwin
  51. Scientist:

    Writer of an essay Darwin read that agreed with his thoughts
    Alfred Wallace
  52. Scientist:

    Suggested that organic compounds necessary for life could have arisen from simpler compounds on a primitive earth
    Stanley Miller and Harold Urey
  53. Vocab:

    Changes occur gradually over time
  54. Vocab:

    Many species vanish at one time
    Mass Extinction
Card Set:
9th Grade - Biology - Evolution
2015-01-11 06:05:14
Biology Evolution

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