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level of structure of protein that is a sequence of a chain of amino acids
primary protein structure
a level of structure of protein that occurs when the sequence of amino acids are linked by hydrogen bonds
secondary protein structure
a level of structure of protein that occurs when certain attractions are preserved between alpha helices and pleated sheets
tertiary protein structure
a level of structure of proteins that occurs when there are more than one amino acid chains attached together
quaternary protein structure
what are the 3 sources of protein biopharmaceuticals?
- microorganisms (ecoli, yeast, fungal)
- animal cell culture systems
- transgenic animals/plants
what are the 3 parts of upstream processing for biopharmaceutical production?
- 1. get cells from cell bank
- 2. propagation of working bank cells, generating starter cultures
- 3. production scale cell culture
what are the 6 parts of downstream processing for biopharmaceutical production?
- 1. harvest cells to recover crude product
- 2. concentration
- 3. main purification
- 4. final product formulation
- 5. product filling, freezing, drying, and sealing
- 6. labeling and packaging
region of the antigen recognized by an antibody
antibodies secreted from a single B cell, have identical paratopes
any substance capable of eliciting an adaptive immune response
immunoglobulin secreted by B cells
what is the mechanism of action of antibody?
- 1. blocikg /neutralizing action of molecular targets
- 2. antibody-dependent celuular cytotoxicity (mark target cells or immune cell to attack)
- 3. signal molecules
- 4. delivery agents
what is a hybridomas technology?
inject mice with antigen and then fuse immune cells with tumor cells to produce hybridomas. The hybridomas are mass produced and then monoclonal antibodies are isolated.