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the minimum concentration of drug needed at the receptors to produce the desired pharmacologic effect.
minimum effective concentration (MEC)
the drug concentration needed to just produce a toxic effect
minimum toxic concentration (MTC)
the time required for the drug to reach the MEC
the difference between the onset time and the time for the drug to decline back to the MEC
duration of action
what are the major challenges in delivery of biopharmaceuticals?
- large size
- instability of the biologic
- rapidly cleared from the body
what are the alternative routes of biopharmaceutical delivery?
- buccal deliveral
- pulmonary delivery
what are main barriers for oral administration?
- the mucus and epithelial barrier
- the first pass effect from the liver
what are the advantages of using parenteral routes of administration?
rapid effect, high bioavailability, can provide fluids, electrolytes and nutrition, large dose
what are the disadvantages of using parenteral routes of administration?
need a trained person, expensive, risky, embolism
what are the factors influencing the route of administration
- characteristics of the biopharmaceutical
- ease of administration
- site of therapeutic action
- desired onset
- duration of action
- quantity of drug needed to be administered
- characteristics of metabolism and excretion
- toxicity and immunogenicity
what are the intracellular target for biopharmaceutical drugs?
- mitochondrial/subcellular targets
- nuclear targets
- intracellular pathogens
- cytoplasmic targets
what are 3 types of viral gene delivery vectors?