Barriers in biopharmaceutical delivery

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Barriers in biopharmaceutical delivery
2014-12-14 23:57:38

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  1. the minimum concentration of drug needed at the receptors to produce the desired pharmacologic effect.
    minimum effective concentration (MEC)
  2. the drug concentration needed to just produce a toxic effect
    minimum toxic concentration (MTC)
  3. the time required for the drug to reach the MEC
    onset time
  4. the difference between the onset time and the time for the drug to decline back to the MEC
    duration of action
  5. what are the major challenges in delivery of biopharmaceuticals?
    • large size
    • instability of the biologic
    • rapidly cleared from the body
  6. what are the alternative routes of biopharmaceutical delivery?
    • buccal deliveral
    • oral
    • pulmonary delivery
    • vaginal
    • rectal
    • transdermal
    • subligula
    • nasal
    • ocular
  7. what are main barriers for oral administration?
    • the mucus and epithelial barrier
    • the first pass effect from the liver
  8. what are the advantages of using parenteral routes of administration?
    rapid effect, high bioavailability, can provide fluids, electrolytes and nutrition, large dose
  9. what are the disadvantages of using parenteral routes of administration?
    need a trained person, expensive, risky, embolism
  10. what are the factors influencing the route of administration
    • characteristics of the biopharmaceutical
    • ease of administration
    • site of therapeutic action
    • desired onset
    • duration of action
    • quantity of drug needed to be administered
    • characteristics of metabolism and excretion
    • toxicity and immunogenicity
  11. what are the intracellular target for biopharmaceutical drugs?
    • mitochondrial/subcellular targets
    • nuclear targets
    • intracellular pathogens
    • cytoplasmic targets
  12. what are 3 types of viral gene delivery vectors?
    • retrovirus
    • aav
    • adenovirus