persuasion final flash cards
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What are the signs of authority?
titles, clothes, and trappings
what was Milgrams experiment?
experimenter told participants to shock the person in another room if they got the answer wrong. they thought they were shocking people, even though they were causing pain they kept going because person with authority told them it was okay
what is gain-framed
this is framing a message in a way that reflects a gain (e.g. if you quit smoking you will be able to breath better and avoid getting cancer) gain framed workes better over time
what is loss-framed
this is framing a message in a way that reflects a loss(e.g. if you dont quit smoking you could get lung cancer and have to have a tracheotomy) loss framed tends to work better in the moment.
what are the parts of the inoculation theory?
supportive, and refutational,
what is supportive part inoculation theory?
supportive- being exposed to a small amount of the supportive argument BEFORE the issue occurs.
what is the refutional part of the inoculation theory?
refutational- giving individuals SOME of the defensive argument before an issue is raised.
what are the different parts of refutation?
refutational same, and refutational different
what is refutational same?
refutational same -using the same argument as the attacker
what is refutational different
refutational different- using a different argument
what does the message structure consist of?
explicit conclusion, quantity v. quality, recommendation specificity, repetition, primary v. recency effect, one sided v. two sided, Refutational v. non-refutational, and Effects of Forewarnings
what is does the explicit conclusion consist of?
Any claim that is made in a message is directly stated by the person sending the message. (e.g. "you should buy our product, our product is the best.")
what is quantity in message structure?
quantity: or a "kitchen sink" approach is when an advocate throws in every available argument.
what is quality in message structure?
quality: or "gourmet" approach is when the number of arguments does not matter rather it is the quality of the arguments
what is the importance of repetition in the message structure?
More exposure often leads to liking, works better if argument is strong
what is the primacy effect?
Primacy: Message A then Message B (time delay) attitude adjustment. First arguments have an advantage of changing a persons attitude. Works better when message is unteresting, unfamilar, or uncontroversial
what is the recency effect?
Recency: message A (time delay) Message B then attitude adjustment. Later arguments have an advantage of changing a person's attitude. Works better when message is interesting, familiar, or controversial.
what is the one sided message structure?
One sided presents arguments in favor of a single proposition, effective for persuading people with little education.
what is two sided message structure?
two sided presents arguments in favor of one proposition and considers opposing arguments as well, effective for persuading people with at least a high school education.
what is refutational message structure?
refutational is when opposing arguments are not only mentioned, but also shown to be inferior to the position advocated by the speaker.
what is Non-refutational message structure?
Non- refutational is when opposing arguments are mentioned, but not argued against.
what are the effects of forewarning?
forewarning audience more aware of a possible counterattitudinal attack. Warnings are not effective.
what is in a forewarning?
examples v. statistics and message comprehisibility
Why is it important to have recommendation specificity?
If the reconmendation has specific steps it is more likely to lead to a behavior change
what makes up recommendation specificity?
recommendation positioning, mere exposure effect, and intrinsic and extrinsic motivations.
what is recommendation positioning?
recommendation positioning is how you present a message to a viewer (before/ after)
what is the importance of the mere exposure effect?
Being repetitively exposed to something will be looked upon more favorably. The impact of the repetiton depends on how personally relevant the message is to the audience
what is intrinsic motivation?
intrinsic motivation is behavior driven by internal rewards like knowledge and self growth.
what is extrinsic motivation?
extrinsic motivation is behavior driven by external rewards such as fame grades and praise
What falls under conformity?
Cults, exclusive similarity, uncertanty, werther effect, salting, asch expereiment, Compliance, Identification, internalization,
what is appealing about cults?
being a member satisfies a need to belong. Often attract new members by providing a seemingly loving environment for new recruits. There is strong pressure to fit in and identify with the cult
what is exclusive similarity?
exclusive similarity is an isolated group that is very small. (e.g. a cult in the jungle.) they have to look outside the group for social cues.
what is the reason for uncertainty?
it is easier to maintain people in isolation( exclusive similarity) cant maintain people if they are in a city intermingiling with other groups because that would reduce uncertanity and destroy exclusive similarity
what is the werther effect?
term for an increase in suicides after media coverage of suicides, inspiration for suicide from books, or linked to family member/ friend committing suicide. (copycat effect)
what is salting and why do people feed off of it so much?
salting (e.g. put money in a tip jar to get other people to tip or putting up a flyer with phone numbers and ripping a few strips off) lets them know they aren't alone
what was Asch's experiment?
Asked which line was longer? 75 % gave the wrong answer under group pressure influencing the wrong answer, this experiment showed that people choose to conform to the group to fit in or that they feel is more informed
what is compliance?
compliance is following whats being told: (e.g. professor ask you to grab a glass of water for her)
what is Identification?
acting a certain way b/c being a part of the group is important to them. Normally only temporary. will revert back to their own beliefs after leaving the group. identify with a group, (e.g. wearing school or favorite team's colors)
what are factors that affect conformity?
group size, gender, personality, and culture,
what does the social impact theory state?
it states that the first person to be added to a group has the strongest social impact on that group
what the Social influence model state?
the social influence model states that the 3rd and 4th people added to the group have the most impact then the level of impact goes down for each following person.
what does informational influence state?
We have a desire to be right and we conform to a group because we think the group may be correct.
what the normative influence state?
we conform in order to gain rewards (e.g to be liked) and avoid punishments that are associated with agreement and disagreement
what does the power of one dissenter state
having an ally (even though the person may be wrong) helps a person resist conforming to a group
what does gender state?
gender states that females are more likely to conform than males.
what happened in the study of bond and smith in 1996?
they mesure 115 men and 111 women in a cafeteria line, 77% of women selected a dessert that the person in front of them had picked and only 33% of men picked the same desert
what did the Burge experiment in 1987 find out about Personality?
it found that people high in desire to control events in their life react negatively to group pressure and are therefore less likely to conform rather than people with low desire for control
what does hierarchial state?
e.g. Asia government: better follow what the boss says. Collectivism: I do whats better for the group even if theres self sacrafice
what does egalitarian state?
eg. western government: I have it my way, individualism I follow my own way, for me
what is the group Locomotion hypothesis?
everyone wants to mutually benefit the group.
what does Social Comparison theory state?
We compare ourselves to others (cars. job, houses, etc.)
what is Consistency theory/Balance theory?
need a positive relationship to conform; Uncomfy to disagree w/ a group you like and find attractive, so you go along with it to restore balance.
what does the epistemological weighting hypothesis state?
taking action by weighing social info and personal info
what does Hedonistic Hypothesis state?
Members conform to gain benefits, and avoid disagreeing to avoid unhappiness, (Maximize Pleasure and Minimize pain)
What is social proof?
social proof is the most common when we are unsure
what happened during the Catherine genovese case?
a women got raped and murdered while a lot of people were in their homes nearby and no one ran out or called 911 except one person (social loafing pluralistic ignorance)
what is an example of deindividuation?
Identity is taken away ex. everyone wears same thing, assigned numbers (army, prison). Orr enemies during a war, look at them as objects and they have their identity stripped away so we are able to kill them and not think of them as an actual human being.
what is pluralistic ignorance?
look around for clues on how to behave?
what is Social loafing?
not putting in all your effort when doing a group project. Causes: free rider effect: I dont need to do anything, my group members got this, sucker effect: Im not going to be the sucker that puts in all the hard work when everyone else is free riding
what is social facilitation?
the tendency to perform better when other people are around (when an attractive girl is looking at you at the gym, you grab the heavier weight)
what happened during Darley and Latane's research?
Subjects where lead to believe that they were having a conversation over an intercom with other subjects (either by themselves or in a group). In reality they were just talking to a tape recorded message. When subjects in a GROUP heard the tape recorder choking and gasping for air only 30% of them helped. When subjects were talking to the recording by themselves, 85% of them helped, meaning the more people their were to help the less likely the people would intervene, as apposed to if they felt they were the only one to help they would intervene. This is also known as the BYSTANDER effect
what does Group Polarization state?
groups make much more extreme decisions than individuals.
what does the social comparison theory state?
we learn about ourselves comparing to other people
what does the persusasive arguements theory state?
before entering in a group discussion, each member has one or more arguments that supports his or her position
what does repeated expressions state?
when making decisions in groups, one states own opinions several times.
What falls under deception?
Falsification, concealment,equivocation,information manipulation theory, the four factor model, Interpersonal Deception theory, Machiavellianism, self monitoring, message strategies, and detecting deception,
what does falsification do?
creates a fiction.
what does concealment do?
hides a secret
what is Equivocation?
it dodges an issue(Distortion)
what does Information Manipulation theory state?
deception occurs when speakers alter the following: the amount of information provided (quantity violation) the veractiy (accuracy) of the information provided (quality violation). the relevance of the info provided (relation violation) and the clarity of the information provided (manner violation)
What does the four- factor Model state in deception?
- Attempted control
- and Cognitive effort
what are the factors of arousal?
pupil dilation, speech, errors or hesitation, eye blinks, vocal pitch, increased adaptors.
what are the factors of attempted control?
while lying, we try to control our behaviors but tend to pay more attention to some part of our body, liked our face, which can lead to "leakage" (e.g. legs shaking, nervous)
what are the factors of emotion?
less pleasanteness, more negative remarks.
what are the factors of cognitive effort?
lying takes more cognitive effort which leads to longer response time, more pauses, and less specifics within one's story.
what does the interpersonal deception theory state?
it states that the deceiver must deal with multiple tasks.
what does the deciever do during the interpersonal deception theory?
he or she manipulates the information in their message to dissociate themselves from the message thereby distancing themselves from the story as well as referencing themselves as little as possible. strategically controls their behavior to suppress deceptions cues such as withdrawing by nodding or gazing less. strategically mange their image to appear more credible, laughing, smiling, or nodding at the right moments.
what does Machiavellianism and deception state?
Tell people what they want to hear, its okay to lie in order to get ahead in life. The person is not interested in interpersonal relationships, manipulates others for selfish purposes and has little sense of social morality, "wolves in sheeps' clothing"
what is said about self montoring and deception?
High self monitoring people have higher level of social and communication skills.
What is said about message strategies in deception?
there tends to be uncertainty and vagueness, liars are rated as sounding more uncertain than truth tellers.
what is nonimmediacy in deception?
retience, withdrawal more distanced and aloofed.
what does disassociation state?
association between certain messages and source... people don't remember the source of the message overtime
what is image/relationship-protecting behavior?
decetption in order to preserving a long term relationship( someone you see at the office all the time, so you're more mindfull)
what falls under detecting deception?
- truth bias,
- lie bias
- and probing heuristic
what is truth bias?
truth bias is the perception that others are behaving honestly familiarity increases persons confidence about judging accuracy can lead to truth bias because you may think familiar people are trustworthy, which hinders your ability to detect decetpion
what is lie bias?
perception that people are being dishonest, more likely to happen on negative relationships
what is suspicion?
through deceptive interactions, people become suspicious of being lied to and may start to behave differently. (use shorter responses takelonger to answer, and manage body movements more). If suspicion is revealed, may altar liars behavior (try harder to convice he is being truthful). Makes you more accurate at judging truth. A modest level of suspicion increases detection of lie.
how is probing a factor in detecting decpetion?
probing does not increase the accuracy of the lie detection. Liars under suspicion will alter their behaviors to be more believable which leads to probing effect, and the lie becomes less detectable.
What does probing heuristic state?
it states that it's difficult to lie while being probed, given the choice, people being probed will tell the truth.
what are the motivational appeals?
- fear appeals
- appeals to pity and guilt
- humor appeals
- pride and patriotism
- sex appeals
- and warmth appeals
what is Ingratiation?
it uses flattery to become more like-able or get what you want from someone else
what are mixed emotions?
work depending on what certain types of appeals are mixed(e.g. gross and fear or warmth and humor)
what does the Protection Motivation Theory state?
threat serverity, threat vulnerability->threat appraisal->protection_>motivation->attitude/behavior change
what does the Extended Parrallel processing model state?
- Model of how fear appeals work. when a message arouses fear in a person they can respond in 3 ways.
- 1)Ignore(not pay attention to message)
- 2) Avoidance (concentrate on constructive ways of avoiding the threat)
- or 3)Fixate on a fear( denial, panic, focus on problem not the solution) for the fear to be effective the person must believe that there is a course of action they can take to avoid the threat. this is called perceived efficacy.
what falls under visual persuasion?
- syntactic indeterminacy
- media literacy
- and entertainment media
what is iconicity?
envokes an emotional response, images can be selective can make something look real when it isnt.
what is indexicality?
documents an event or something that has happened(e.g. staving children, or dogs that have been beaten...those sad commercials)
what is syntatic indeterminacy?
Pictures can't convey precise relationships between things portrayed (so often words are added) naturally ambiguous in nature.
what is image oriented?
- advertisers seek to creat positive associations between their brand and idealized images or lifestyles. examples of afilliations advertisers try to make their products: social status and elitism
- sex or romance
- power, speed, strength
- youth culture
- safety, security
- sense of place, belonging
what is shockvertising?
it is something you don't expect to see, grabs your attention.
what is media literacy?
Understand that all messages are manufacured with a goal. seeing is not really believing be critical. what is said/ shown or not and why?
what are the effects or ads?
- social effects
- freedom of speech
- private and public intersts
what is deception in relation to ads?
ad is not entirely truthful about the product (product promises to do all these things but falls short)
how is language related to effects of ads?
often times will have shortened phrases. (catchy)
how are children effected by ads?
before 2nd grade kids can't tell what are ads and real / imaginary (e.g. dora eating trix)
how is consumerism effected by ads?
We are surrounded by capitalism that we constantly need to consume. if there is a problem we can pay it away, or if there is a medical issue we can get a pill for it.
what are social effects?
Body image, males need to be ripped, females need to be a size 0
how freedom of speech effected by ads?
theres a line between free speech and regulating advertising claims. E.g. doctor Oz's supplement endorsements.
private vs. public interest?
tobacco company owns other smaller companies, one of those smaller companies goes on a radio show and says that cigarettes are bad then tabacco calls that company and says they will pull all of their ads.
Internet in ads
numerous people and organizations can disseminate message via the internet, so critical evaluation is necessary.
how are movies effected by ads?
Model behavior, promote popular culture, product placement(ex. in movies actor might hold a coke can so you can clearly see the label).
what are some characteristics of ethical persuasion?
- intentionality, Conscious awareness for all involved
- free choice/free will
- and language and symbolic action
what do motives have to do with ethics of persuasion.
Motivation often determines what makes a persuasive message ethical or not.
ethics of fear appeals
only ethical if the fear is genuine
Ethics and ingratiation
ethical in cases with good motives (ex. trying to cheer up a friend who got a bad grade) unethical in cases with bad motives (ex. turning attention to dying relative in order to inherit their money)
what are good motives of Ethics of using threats in persuasion?
- deception: conceal a surprise birthday party for someone
- fear appeal: convince a child not to get into a strangers car
- Ingratiation: cheering up a friend who is sad about a bad movie grade.
what are bad motives of ethics of using threats in persuasion?
- deception: try to swindle elder person out of his/her life savings
- fear appeal: threaten to demote an employee for refusing a superiors sexual advances
- ingratiation: being very kind to an old relative to inherit their money
what are gass and seiter's guidelines and or essential attributes of ethical persuasion?
- and beneficience
respect in ethics is
respect for other party, when respect is involved it is more likely to be truthful acceptable.
equality in ethics states
if unequal, other concerns are present
tolerance in ethics states
even if you don't agree with another persons beliefs, this is a bidirectional transaction. tolerate and recognize each others opinions
beneficience in ethics
benefits both parties involved (ideal situation)
what are Cialdini's types of persuaders?
what is a bungler?
select ineffective strategies and tactis for influence. Bungle means to be incompetent or fail in attempts. They are unsuccessful persuaders.
what is a smuggler?
know exactly what they are doing but rely on unethical influence tactics. (ex. wouldn't hesitate to use deception as a compliance gaining technique for immediate results).
what is a sleuths
more knowlegeable about how influence works, more ethical in strategies and tactics. Sleuth is an ideal persuader.
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