CARLA 19

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Author:
tames38
ID:
291632
Filename:
CARLA 19
Updated:
2014-12-15 07:51:04
Tags:
BIO 377 CARLA 19 Exam4 Final
Folders:
science,medical physiology
Description:
CARLA set #19 for BIO 377 at UMaine (Fall 2014). This set pertains to Exam 4 (part of the final).
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  1. When a B cell contacts a foreign or abnormal antigen, it develops into a _________ that releases __________.
    plasma cell; antibodies
  2. Edema can result from a(n) _________.
    increased capillary permeability
  3. Leukocyte movement from blood to the site of tissue damage or infection involves _________, leukocyte movement toward the blood vessel wall; ________, the movement of leukocytes between endothelial cells of the blood vessel; and _________, the movement within the tissue to the site of injury.
    margination; diapedesis; chemotaxis
  4. While _______ is released early in the inflammatory response to inhibit clotting, the _______ that have leaked into the interstitial space become active and isolate the region of damage.
    heparin; clotting factors
  5. Which of the following is NOT an action of interleukins released by phagocytic cells?
    acting as opsonins to facilitate phagocytosis
  6. The release of ________ by T cells activates natural killer cells in a specific immune response.
    interleukin-2
  7. In order to mount a response, particular B or T cells must express the appropriate ________ that will bind to the ________.
    antigen receptor; antigen
  8. Why is a secondary immune response stronger?
    Memory cells produced during the primary response lead to a rapid proliferation of effector cells on subsequent exposure to the antigen.
  9. Activation of a B cell by an antigen results in its proliferation and differentiation into ___________, which secrete antibodies that attack the antigen.
    plasma cells
  10. The lifespan of plasma cells is approximately _________.
    several days
  11. The development of memory B cells in response to an antigen requires the secretion of ________ from ________ cells.
    interleukin-2; helper T cells
  12. Which of the antibody classes is able to cross epithelial cells and is therefore present in breast milk?
    IgA
  13. Which of the antibody classes is able to destroy an antigen by activating the nonspecific killing action of the natural killer cells?
    IgG
  14. _________ secrete cytokines that enhance the activity of B cells, cytotoxic T cells, suppressor T cells, and helper T cells.
    Helper T cells
  15. Receptors on every T cell detect foreign antigens on cells of the body by their association with the _________ on the surface of the infected cells of the body.
    major histocompatibility (MHC) molecule
  16. Cells that leave the thymus with the ability to bind to class I major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules will develop into ________.
    cytotoxic T cells
  17. Cells that leave the thymus with the ability to bind class II major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules will develop into ___________.
    helper T cells
  18. Activation of helper T cell proliferation, once it has bound to its major histocompatibility (MHC) molecule, involves the release of __________ from _______.
    interleukin-1; B cells
  19. Activation of cytotoxic T cells requires binding to class I MHC molecule complexed with a foreign antigen and the release of ________ from __________.
    interleukin-2; helper T cells
  20. The primary mechanism whereby cytotoxic T cells are able to destroy infected cells involves _________.
    the incorporation of perforins into the cell membrane
  21. The incorporation of perforins into the cell membrane results in their ________.
    swelling and subsequent lysis
  22. A number of tumors and viruses (e.g., Epstein-Barr) are able to escape cytotoxic T cell degradation by _________.
    inhibiting the production of the class I MHC molecule
  23. Vaccines are composed of _________ that stimulate an active immunity to the pathogen.
    the non-pathogenic portion of the microorganism
  24. A natural form of passive immunity involves the ________.
    transfer of IgA antibodies to an infant through the mother's milk
  25. People who have type AB blood are considered __________ because they __________.
    universal recipients; have no antibodies to A or B
  26. People who have type O blood are considered __________ because they __________.
    universal donors; have no A or B antigens
  27. Hay fever that occurs when people are exposed to pollen involves an excess release of IgE, which __________ and causes them to ____________.
    bind to mast cells; degranulate, releasing histamine
  28. The most acute allergic response is anaphylactic shock, which can be deadly due to the histamine-induced _____________.
    decrease in peripheral resistance that decreases mean arterial pressure
  29. Diabetes mellitus can be caused by a form of autoimmune disease that attacks ________.
    beta cells of the pancreas, which destroys insulin production
  30. _________ released in times of stress directly inhibits the function of the immune system.
    corticosteroid
  31. Which of the following are considered lymphoid tissues?

    A) spleen
    B) lung
    C) bone marrow
    D) liver
    C) bone marrow
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Which of the following are NOT lymphocytes?

    A) monocytes
    B) T cells
    C) B cells
    D) NK cells
    A) monocytes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Molecules released during inflammation include _________.
    • heparin
    • histamine
    • cytokines
  34. Put the events that occur during leukocyte recruitment to a site of tissue and/or infection in the correct order.

    HINT: Use the following:

    chemotaxis
    diapedesis
    margination
    attachment
    margination, attachment, diapedesis, chemotaxis
  35. Molecules called interleukins enhance the body's response to infection by _________.
    inducing B & T cell proliferation
  36. The phenomenon of acquired immunity is due to the presence of __________ cells.
    memory
  37. Which of the following statements about MHC molecules is true?

    A) none of these
    B) Cytotoxic T cells bind to class II MHCs
    C) Helper T cells bind to class I MHCs
    D) During their development in the thymus, only those T cells bearing receptors with the appropriate affinity for MHC molecules survive.
    D) During their development in the thymus, only those T cells bearing receptors with the appropriate affinity for MHC molecules survive.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. Cytotoxic T cells ____________.
    kill target cells by inducing them to lyse
  39. A person with type B blood ___________.
    can recieve type O blood in a transfusion


    • -cannot donate blood to someone with type AB blood
    • -will not possess antibodies totype A blood, although they have never been exposed to type A blood
    • -will not possess antigens for type A blood
  40. In order fpr an organ or tissue transplant to be successful ________.
    • the recipient's immune responses must be suppressed
    • the donor cells must not attack the recipient's cells
    • the MHC molecules of the donor and recipient should match as closely as possible

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