MUSCLES Plus some skeletal
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funtion of muscle
- 1. motion
- 2. stabilizes body position
- 3. thermogenesis
types of muscle
- 1. skeletal (voluntary)
- 2. smooth
- 3. cardiac involuntary
characteristics of muscle tissue
- 1. excitability
- 2. extendable
- 3. contractible
- 1. muscle itself
- 2. fasicles
- 3. fiber cells (muscle)
- 4. fibrils (myofibrils)
- 5. filaments (myofilaments)
- a. actin (thin filament)
- b. myosin (thick filament)
muscle cell componenets
- 1. sarcolemma (cell membrane)
- 2. sarcoplasmic reticulum (Ca++ reservoir temporaty)
- 3. T-tubules (evaginations of sarcolemma)
- 4. terminal cisterna (2 end points of T-tubules that border the SEF)
- 5. Triad (2 terminal cisternae + SER)
three types of proteins at Level 5
- 1. structural proteins
- 2. regulatory
- 3. actin & myosin
- 1. titin (large) holds together Z disks to M lines in sarcomeres
- 2. myomesin - attaches to M lines
- 3. nebulin - wraps around actin & keeps it around the Z disk of each end point
- 4. dystrophia - attaches to sarcolemma
The red bone Marrow is found in the medullary Cavity of the Diaphysis of the long bone.
The perforating canals of the long bone connect to the Central or Haversian Canals.
The Canaliculi connect to the Osteocytes in compact bone.
The Periosteum provides a blood supply for the long bone through the Periosteal Artery wh/ connects to the Perforrating Canals.
Four zones of Hyaline Cartilage found in the Metaphysis of a Growing Bone.
- 1. zone resting cartilage
- 2. zone of proliferating cartilage
- 3. zone of hypertrophic cartilage
- 4. zone of calcified cartilage
zone resting cartilage
nearest epiphysis - consists of small, scattered chondrocytes. cells don't function in bone growth. they anchor the epiphyseal plate to the epiphysis of the bone.
zone of proliferating cartilage
slightly larger chondrocytes arranged like stacks of coins. these chondrocytes undergo interstitial growth as they divide and secrete extracellular matrix.
zone of hypertrophic cartilage
consists of large, maturing chondrocytes arranged in columns.
zone of calcified cartilage
final zone of the epiphyseal plate is only a few cells thick & consists mostly of chondrocytes that are dead because of the extracellular matrix around them that has calcified. osteoclasts dissolve the calcified cartilage and osteoblasts and capillaries from the diaphysis invade the area. Osteoblasts lay down bone extracellular matrix replacing the calcified cartilage by the process of endochondral ossification.
how many curves of the spine
type of fibrous joint in wh/ a cone shaped peg fits into a socket like in the teeth?
four anatomical sections of the Vertebrae, that is, the same parts of all Vertebrate no matter what region of the Vertebral Column they aris from?
- 1. body
- 2. vertebral foreman
- 3. annulus fibrosus - outer fibrous ring consisting of fibrocartilage
- 4. disk
which area of the scapula serves as a point of attachment for many muscles and ligaments of the upper torso
What regious of the clavicle articulates with the scapula?
acromial end of clavicle
3 anatomical areas of the sternum
- 1. manubrium
- 2. body
- 3. xiphoid process
Embryological Bone Development
- 1. development of cartilage model: mesenchymal cells develop into chondroblasts, wh/ for cartilage model.
- 2. growth of cartilage model: via cell division of chondrocytes
- 3. devel of primary ossification center: in this region of diaphysis, bone tissue has replased most of the cartilage.
- 4. development of the medullary (marrow) cavity; bone breakdown by osteoclasts forms the medullary cavity
- 5. dev of secondary ossification centers: these occur in the epiphysis of the bone.
- 6. formation of articular and epiphyseal plate: both structures consist of hyaline cartilage.
Reactions by which muscle fibers produce ATP...
- 1. ATP from creatine phospate
- a. creatine phosphate formed from ATP while muscle
- b. high-energy phosphate group to ADP, forming ATP during muscle contraction
- 2. ATP from anaerobic glycolysis
- a. breakdown of muscle glycogen into glucose
- b. production of pyruvic acid from glucose via glycolysis produce both ATP & lactic acid
- c. because no oxygen is needed, this is an 3. anaerobic pathway
- 3. ATP from aerobic respirationwithin
- a. mitochondria, pyruvic acid, fatty acids, & amino acids are used to produce ATP via aerobic respiration, an oxygen-requiring set of reactions
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