Bones and Joints of the Proximal Forelimb
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Where is the central nervous system located?
The brain is located in the skull and the spinal cord is located in the vertebral column
Where do cranial/spinal nerves emerge from?
Cranial nerves emerge from the brain and spinal nerves emerge from the spinal cord
Describe the direction of afferent/efferent pathways
- Afferent - body to brain - sensory fibres and proprioception
- Efferent - brain to body - voluntary movement
What do spinal nerves pass through when they leave the spinal cord?
The intervertebral foramen
Which ventral branches of the spinal cord form the ____ plexus in the forelimb?
- C6, C7, T1, T2
- Brachial plexus
Which extrinsic forelimb muscles does the brachial plexus NOT supply?
Brachiocephalic and Trapezius
What type of bone is the humerus?
What part of the humerus articulates with the scapula to form the shoulder joint?
Head of the humerus
What palpable feature of the humerus marks the location of the shoulder joint? What aspect of the humerus is it located on
- Greater tubercle
- Lateral (lesser tubercle is located on the medial aspect)
What is the function of the inter tubercular groove?
Allows passage of the biceps tendon
What palpable landmarks are located at the distal end of the humerus?
Medial and lateral epicondyles
What structure is located between the medial and lateral epicondyles? What is its function?
Trochlea - provides a smooth articular surface for the elbow joint
Which fossa is located at the distal end of the humerus?
Olecranon fossa is located on the caudal aspect of the distal humerus
What foramen is present in dogs?
Does anything pass through the supratrochlear foramen?
Is the supratrochlear foramen present in cats and larger species?
What foramen is present in cats? Does anything pass through it?
Supracondyloid foramen - blood vessels and nerves pass through
How many centres of ossification does the humerus develop from?
What is a weak point in the humerus?
The supratrochlear foramen
What are the different types of joints?
What are the 5 typical components of a synovial joint? What is the function of each?
- Hyaline cartilage - reduces friction, flexible for shock absorption
- Synovial fluid - nourished cartilage, lubricates joint
- Synovial membrane - produces synovial fluid
- Joint capsule - fibrous layer outside synovial membrane
- Collateral ligaments - hold bones together, reduce movement in unwanted directions
What are the two components of the shoulder joint?
Glenoid cavity of scapula (concave) and head of humerus (convex)
What are the palpable landmarks for location of the shoulder joint?
Acromion process of scapula and greater tubercle of humerus
Which muscles provide lateral and medial support to the shoulder joint? What are their nerve supplies?
- Lateral - infraspinatous and supraspinatous muscles. Suprascapular nerve.
- Medial - subscapularis muscle. Subscapular nerve.
What structure protects the biceps brachii tendon of insertion as it runs through the inter tubercle groove?
The bicipital bursa
What holds the bicipital bursa in place?
What is osteochondrosis?
Erosion of articular cartilage and subchondral bone
What is degenerative joint disease?
New bone formation around the osteochondral junction
What causes DJD?
Wear and tear. Also damage to joints.
Which is weight bearing: radius or ulna?
Which part of the ulna provides the articular surface for the a) elbow joint b) carpus?
What is the function of the ulna?
It provides leverage for extension of the elbow and movement of the distal limb
What palpable feature is present on the proximal end of the ulna?
What part of the ulna fits into the olecranon fossa of the humerus?
The anconeal process
What part of the ulna provides the articular surface for the elbow joint?
Where does the radius sit in relation to the ulna? What holds it in place?
The radius sits between the medial and lateral coronoid processes of the ulna. It is held in place by an annular ligament.
What is the most medial projection a) a proximal b) distal: radius or ulna?
How many centres of ossification does the radius and ulna develop from?
- Radius - three
- Ulna - four
Why must the radius and ulna grow together?
If they do not grow together there will be angular limb deformities
In which animals are the radius and ulna fused?
Ruminants and horses
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