Card Set Information
Chapters 14 and 16 Review
How do vaccines cause immunity?
They provide memory B cells
What is the difference between a memory B cell and a plasma B cell?
Memory B cell makes more of the same cell, plasma B cell makes antibodies
What is the primary function of lymph nodes?
To clean lymph of pathogens before it reaches the bloodstream
What is the difference between active immunity and passive immunity?
Active immunity is building and developing your own antibodies, passive immunity is receiving antibodies
How does B cell activation differ from T cell activation?
B cells are activated by contact; T cells require B cells and major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII) to be activated
What is the largest of the lymphatic organs?
A disease causing agent is known as what?
Mechanisms that are general in nature to protect against pathogens?
Non-specific Defense Mechanisms
What type of mechanisms target specific pathogens?
Specific Defense Mechanisms
Skin, hair, and mucous membranes are what kind of barriers?
How does interferon work?
It causes surrounding cells to make anti-viral proteins
Describe the signs of inflammatory response.
Redness, pain, heat, swelling
What is the primary chemical that causes an inflammatory response?
Resistance to pathogens is known as what?
What is an antigen?
Anything that elicits an immune response
What is an allergen?
Anything that elicits an allergic reaction
Which branch of the immune system uses cell-mediated immunity?
T-cell branch (because it uses perforin) which uses contact
How does a humoral-mediated immunity system work?
Antibodies flow to the humorous
What are the functions of cytokines?
To enhance cellular response to antigens
T-cell activation requires an antigen to be presented, thru the use of what?
Antigen Presenting Cell (APC)
An antibody molecule has 2 parts: the constant region, and the variable region; these are known as what?
Antigen Binding Sites
What is the difference between a primary immune response and a secondary immune response?
Primary is when a person is first exposed to an antigen; secondary is when B cells produce memory cells
Percentage of red blood cells by volume is known as what?
The remaining 55% of blood that is the clear, liquid portion is known as what?
What type of white blood cell will be elevated by a bacterial infection?
What type of white blood cell will be elevated by a parasitic worm infestation?
Anemia caused by deficiency of hemoglobin is known as what?
Iron Deficiency Anemia
This clotting mechanism is initiated by clotting factors within the blood.
Intrinsic Clotting Mechanism
What are the 3 hemostatic mechanisms?
1) Vasospasm 2) Platelet Plug Formation 3) Blood Coagulation
A major event in blood coagulation (blood clot formation) is the conversion of soluble _____ into insoluble _____.
Deficiency of red blood cells, or the oxygen-carrying capacity of them is known as what?
This blood type is the universal donor because it lacks antigens A and B.
Leukocytes with a granular cytoplasm are known as what?
What are the two types of agranulocytes?
1) Monocytes 2) Lymphocytes
A blood clot abnormally forming in vessels is known as what?
If there is more prostacyclin than thromboxane, there will be _____ clotting.
If there is more thromboxane than prostacyclin, there will be _____ clotting.
How does aspirin decrease risk of heart attacks?
It provides more prostacyclin, decreasing clotting
List the 4 types of hypersensitivities.
1) Anaphylactic Shock 2) Antibody-Dependent Cytotoxic Reactions 3) Immune Complex Reactions 4) Delayed-Reaction Hypersensitivity
List and describe (in order) the colors involved in bruising.
1) Black and Blue (venous blood) 2) Green (biliverdin) 3) Orange (bilirubin)
What is the primary cell involved in an allergic reaction?
What is the carbonic acid dissociation formula?
CO2 + H2O = H2CO3 = H+ + HCO3-