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what are the digestive organs (GI Tract)
- oral cavity
- small intestine
- large intestine
the ______________ are not part of the long GI tube, but often develop as outgrowth of that tube.
accessory digestive organs
what are the accessory digestive organs?
- salivary gland
- gall bladder
the ripple-like wave of the muscular contraction that forces material to move further along the GI tract.
the churning and mixing of material helping to disperse the material and mix it and combine it with digestive organ secretions.
forms the primary mass of the tooth and it is harder than bone.
what are the teeth surfaces?
what are deciduous teeth and how many are there?
- aka baby teeth or milk teeth
- erupt between 6-30 months
- 20 teeth
how many permanent teeth are there and what does it consist?
- canines - for puncturing and tearing
- premolars - for crushing and grinding
- molars - for crushing and grinding
what are the layers of the GI tract and where in body is it found?
- muscularis externa - Found in mouth, pharynx, upper esophagus and lower portion of the anal canal
- adventitia (serosa) - found in abdominopelvic cavity
what are the ligaments of the liver?
- round ligament of the liver
- falciform ligament
- coronary ligament
what are the protective layers of the kidney?
- Fibrous capsule:Dense irregular CT that covers outer surface of kidney
- Perinephric fat:Provides cushioning and insulation to the kidney
- Renal fascia:Anchors kidney to posterior abdominal wall
- Paranephric fat:Outermost layer surrounding the kidney between renal fascia and peritoneum
what are the urine formations?
- glomerular filtration: the movement of the substance from the blood within the glomerulus into the capsular space
- tubular reabsorption: the movement of substances from the tubular fluid back into the blood (ex. glucose)
- tubular secretion: the movement of substances from the blood into the tubular fluid (ex. sodium)
difference between ADH and Aldosterone.
- ADH regulates water resorption in the collecting ducts
- Aldosteron regulates sodium resorption (and thus indirectly water resorption) in the renal tubules.
describe the hilum of the kidney.
The kidneys have a concave medial border called the hilum, where vessels, nerves, andthe ureter connect with the kidney
what are the difference between the male and female urethra?
- female: transports urine out the body
- male: transports both urine and sperm out the body
- male urethra are partitioned into 3 segments:
- 1. prostatic urethra
- 2. membranous urethra
- 3. spongy urethra
primary sex organs
male and female reproductive organ and homologues
- labia minora- penis(shaft)
- labia majora- scrotum
male reproductive muscles
- dartos muscles: a layer of smooth muscles that is part of the wall of the scrotum
- cremaster muscles: Formed from muscle fiber extensions of the internal oblique muscle
- corpus spongiosum: is inferior and midline and surrounds the spongy urethra
what are the cells within the testes?
- 1.Sustentacular cells—nondividing support cells that assistwith sperm development; connected to each other by tight junctions and form the blood-testis barrier
- 2.A population of dividing germ cells that continuously produce sperm beginning at puberty
where are sperms produced
In the epididymis of the testicles
what hormone is produced in the testes?
blood brain barrier (BBB)
to protect the brain from changes in the levels in the blood of ions, amino acids, peptides, and other substances. The barrier is located at the brain blood capillaries
axial skeleton vs appendicular skeleton
- axial skeleton: refers to the bones making up trunk up to the head
- appendicular skeleton: refers to bones making up your limbs (arms & legs)
classification of joints structure
- Fibrous: Bones held together by dense regular connective tissue
- Cartilaginous: Bones joined by cartilage
- Synovial: Bones separated by fluid-filled cavity
classification of joint function
- Synarthrosis: Immobile joint
- Amphiarthrosis: Slightly mobile joint
- Diarthrosis: Freely moveable joint