Science Chapter 7

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Science Chapter 7
2015-01-23 14:50:19

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  1. Celestial object
    Any object that exists in space, such as a planet a star or the moon
  2. Astronomer
    Scientist who studies astronomy
  3. Revolution
    The time it takes for an object orbit around another object; Earth's revolution around the sun is 365.24 days
  4. rotation
    The turning of an object around and imaginary axis running through it; earth's rotation around its axis is 24 hours
  5. Constellation
    Group of stars that seems to form a distinctive pattern in the sky

    some constellations include Cassiopia, Capricornus, Leo, Ursa Major, Orion, and cancer
  6. Light year
    The distance that light travels in one year, about 9.5×10^12 kilometers

    not a unit of time
  7. Apparent magnitude
    The brightness of a star as seen from Earth
  8. Asterism
    Smaller group of stars that form patterns within a constellation

    • Orion's belt is in asterism inside of orion
    • The big dipper is an asterism inside of Ursa Major
  9. Pointer stars
    Two or more stars that point to another star

    The two stars in the dipper of the big dipper point directly to Polaris. these two stars are pointer stars
  10. Circumpolar
    A star which, if viewed from a certain latitude on earth, never sets below the horizon because the earths axis is pointing to that star

    circumpolar star from our latitude is Polaris
  11. zenith
    While standing on earth it is the Celestial object directly above the observer
  12. Tides
    The rising and falling of ocean water caused by the moon's and Earth's gravity

    The tides are highest in the bay of Fundy
  13. Phases of the moon
    The monthly progression of changes in the appearance of the moon that result from different portions of the moons sunlit side being visible from Earth

    • new moon
    • waxing crescent
    • first quarter
    • waxing gibbous
    • second quarter
    • waning gibbous
    • third quarter
    • waning crescent
  14. Lunar eclipse
    The phenomenon in which the full moon passes into Earth's shadow

    lunar eclipses are perfectly safe to view with the naked eye
  15. Solar eclipse
    The Phenomenon in which the shadow of the moon falls on earth's surface

    It is dangerous to look at a solar eclipse with the naked eye. The radiation from the sun can burn your retinas and blind you

    • penumbra - partial shadow
    • umbra - full shadow
  16. Why do we have seasons?
    Earths axis is tilted at 23.5° from the floodplain earths orbit in the summer months the northern hemisphere is tilted towards the sun making the light more direct. In the winter months the northern hemisphere hemisphere is tilted away from the sun the opposite happens in the southern hemisphere.
  17. Planet (inner and outer)
    an object that orbits one or more stars bracket and is not a star itself bracket, is spiracle, and does not share it with another object

    An inner planet is closer to theis closer to the sun than the astroid belt. inner planets include mercury Venus Earth and Mars

    An outer planet is farther from the sun than the astroid belt. Outer planets include Jupiter Saturn Uranus and Neptune
  18. Solar system
    A group of planets that Circle one or more stars
  19. Retrograde motion
    The movement of an object in the sky, usually a planet, from east to west, rather than its normal motion from west to east; this effect is generally produced when earth is passing the planet in its orbit
  20. Astronomical unit
    The average distance between Earth and the sun, about 150×10^6 km
  21. Orbital Radius
    The average distance between the sun and an object that is orbiting the sun
  22. Geocentric model
    A model of the solar system stating that earth is the center of all planetary motion with the planets and the sun traveling in perfect circles around earth

    this model is incorrect
  23. Heliocentric model
    A model of the solar system in which the sun is in the center with the planets orbiting it

    This is the correct model
  24. Comet
    An object composed of rocky material, ice, and gas; comes from the kuiper belt or oort cloud
  25. asteroid
    object in space that ranges in size from a tiny speck, like a grain of sand, to 500 km wide; most asteroids originate in the astroid belt between Mars and Jupiter
  26. meteoroid
    A piece of rock moving through space
  27. Meteor
    a meteoroid that hits earth's atmosphere and burns up
  28. Meteorite
    A meteoroid that is large enough to pass through earths atmosphere and reach the ground without being totally burned up
  29. trans-neptunian object
    An object that circles the sun beyond the orbit of Neptune