Anatomy- Pelvic Cavity and Urinary Tract.txt

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Anatomy- Pelvic Cavity and Urinary Tract.txt
2014-12-15 20:39:21
urogenital anatomy

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  1. The pelvic cavity is long ________ but short ________, bound laterally by the _______, _______, _______, dorsally by the _______ and ________.
    dorsally; ventrally; ilium, ischium, pubis; sacrum, first caudal vertebra
  2. Te pelvic inlet is bounded dorsally by the _____________, ventrally by the ___________, and bilaterally by the ____________.
    promontory of the sacrum; cranial border of the pubis; arcuate line of the ilium
  3. The pelvic outlet (aka the _____________) is bounded ventrally by the __________, dorsally by the __________, and bilaterally by the __________.
    caudal pelvic aperture; ischiatic arch; caudal vertebra 1; sacrotuberous ligament
  4. The wall and associated structures closing the pelvic outlet and surround the anal and urogenital canals.
  5. The pelvic outlet is closed caudally about the terminal parts of the ___________ and ____________ by ___________; the projection of this upon the skin is called the __________.
    digestive; urogenital tracts; perineum; perineal region
  6. The perineum is superficially bounded dorsally by the ____________, laterally by the _________________, and ventrally by the ________ or __________.
    base of tail; skin that covers the paired superficial gluteal and internal obturator mm and the ischial tuberosity; base of the scrotum; beginning of the vulva.
  7. Tearing of the perineum.
    perineal laceration
  8. Protrusion of an organ or tissue through the perineum.
    perineal hernia
  9. The vertical closure of the pelvic cavity through which the rectum and genitourinary tract passes, which consists of two muscles and fascia; the main muscular component of the perineum.
    pelvic diaphragm
  10. hat two muscles make up the perineal diaphragm?
    levator ani m., coccygeus m.
  11. The levator ani m. is the ________ component of the pelvic diaphragm.
  12. The coccygeus m. is the __________ component of the pelvic diaphragm.
  13. The levator ani m. divides into 2 parts, with the ____________ passing between the two parts.
    obturator n.
  14. Levator ani m.
    • Action- presses the tail against the anus and urogenital tract to initiate defection
    • Innervation- sacral nerve 3, caudal nerve 1
  15. Coccygeus m.
    • Action- press the tail against the anus and urogenital tract, aids in defecation, moves the tail b/w the rear legs
    • Innervation- sacral nerve 3
  16. The striated muscle under voluntary control encircling the anal canal.
    external anal sphincter
  17. The smooth muscle, that is a thickened portion of the circular coat of the anal canal.
    internal anal sphincter
  18. The space on either side of the anus between the anus and pelvic diaphragm and the sacrotuberous ligament; usually filled with fat.
    Ischiorectal fossa
  19. Poles of the kidney:
    Borders of the kidney:
    Surfaces of the kidney:
    • Poles: cranial and caudal
    • Borders: medial and lateral
    • Surfaces: dorsal and ventral
  20. The kidneys are located in the ___________ region, lying against the ___________ in a __________ position.
    sublumbar; sublumbar muscles; retroperitoneal
  21. The right kidney is located at _______, around the _______ and ________.
    L1-L3; descending duodenum; cranial duodenal flexure
  22. The left kidney is located at ________.
  23. Lying against the walls of the abdominal cavity, covered only on one surface by peritoneum.
  24. In the bitch, the caudal poles of both kidneys are related to the ___________________.
    fat-filled mesovarium and ovaries
  25. The _________ may be palpated in most dogs, but the ________ is only palpated exceptionally, such as in thing dogs.
    left kidney; right kidney
  26. The cat's kidneys are given a distinctive appearance by _______________ converging over the surface toward the hilus.
    capsular veins
  27. The kidneys of the ______ are more mobile than the kidneys of the _______; both kidneys of the ________ are readily palpable.
    cat; dog; cat
  28. The outer layer of the renal parenchyma that has a granular appearance.
    renal cortex
  29. The renal cortex contains primarily the _________ and ___________.
    renal corpuscles; convoluted portions of the tubules
  30. The inner layer of the renal parenchyma that is striated in appearance due to numerous collecting ducts.
    renal medulla
  31. The parts of the renal medulla that fuse at the center to form the renal crest.
    renal pyramid
  32. The point at the center of the renal medulla at which the renal pyramids fuse.
    renal crest
  33. A longitudinal ridge projecting into the renal pelvis, through which collecting tubules of the kidney excrete urine into the renal pelvis.
    renal crest
  34. The _______ connect the kidneys with the bladder.
  35. The proximal portion of the ureter is expanded within the kidney to form the collecting basin called the _________.
    renal pelvis
  36. Portions of the renal pelvis that project outward between the renal pyramids.
    pelvic recesses
  37. The fat-filled space that contains the renal vessels and surrounds the renal pelvis.
    renal sinus
  38. The ureters open _______ at the neck of the bladder; in the male, the ureter crosses _______ to the _______, and it can be torns turing castration.
    dorsally; dorsal; ductus deferens
  39. The 3 parts of the urinary bladder.
    apex, body, neck
  40. The _________ connects the ventral surface f the bladder to symphysis as far cranially as the umbilicus.
    median ligament of the bladder
  41. In the fetus, the median ligament of the bladder contains the ________, which can cause ________ if it does not close after birth.
    urachus; dripping urine (patent (persistent) urachus)
  42. The ___________ connect the lateral surface of the bladder to the lateral pelvic walls.
    lateral ligaments of the bladder
  43. In the fetus, the lateral ligaments of the bladder contain the _________, __________, which are components of the umbilical cord that are retracted after the cord is cut at birth.
    umbilical artery, round ligaments of the bladder
  44. Dorsal triangular area near the neck, between the two urethral openings and the urethral orifice.
    trigone of the bladder
  45. The membranous canal conveying urine from the bladder to the exterior of the body.
  46. The urethral muscle is _________.
    striated (voluntary)
  47. The blood supply to the kidney includes... (5)
    aorta--> renal aa.--> interlobar aa.--> arcuate aa.--> interlobular aa.
  48. The arteries at the junction of the cortex and medulla of the kidney.
    arcuate aa.
  49. The venous return of the kidney includes the following... (6)
    stellate vv.--> interlobular vv.--> arcuate vv.--> interlobar vv.--> renal vv.--> caudal vena cava