Card Set Information
Speech Final Fall 09
Speech Final Fall 09
What is the definition of communication?
refers to the process of human beings responding to the symbolic behavior of other persons.
5 Types of Communications.
Small Group Communication.
Functions of Communication.
Characteristics of competent communicators.
A wide range of behaviors.
Ability to choose the most appropriate behavior.
Skills at performing behaviors.
Commitment to the relationship.
is a set of relatively stable perceptions that each of us holds about ourselves.
is our perception of ourselves, i is unique it makes us similar to others and different from others.
Introduced in 1902 by Charles H. Cooley.
suggested that we put ourselves in the position of other people and then, in our mind's eye, view ourselves as we imagine they see us.
Occurs when a person's expectations of an outcome makes the outcome more likely to occur than would otherwise have been true.
Type 1:occurs when your own expectations influence your behavior.
Type 2:occurs when the expectations o on person govern another's actions.
Labeling people according to our first impressions is an inevitable part of the perception process.
Labels are a way of making interpretations.
We are influenced by the most obvious.
There are three factors that cause us to notice some messages and ignore others.
Intense (loud music).
Reptitious (dripping faucet).
Contrastive (normally happy is grumpy).
Situational factors in relation to perception.
Degree of Involvement with the other person.
Is the ability to re-create another person's perspective, to experience the world form the other's point of view.
Challenges to listening.
Pseudo listening - faking it.
Selective listening - only parts you want to hear.
Defensive listening - someone to attack.
Ambushing - listening to info to attack.
Insulating listening - ignoring what said/not agreeing.
Stage hogging - listening to take attention back to yourself.
Reasons for poor listening.
listening too hard - writing down everyting instead of main points.
jumping to conclusions.
focusing on delivery and personal appearance.
Types of listening.
Appreciative listening - music, comedy.
Comprehensive listening - to understand.
Evaluative listening - listen to make a judgement.
Empathetic listening - putting self in someone's shoes.
Characteristics of nonverbal communication.
NC exists - ideas on how others feel w/o words.
N Behavior has communicative value - unintentional & intentional.
NC is Primarily Relational - serve utilitarian functions, identity management, convey emotions.
NC is Ambiguous - difficult to interpret.
NC is different from Verbal Communication -often unintended & unconscious.
N skills are Important - impossible to study spoken w/o paying attention to nonverbal.
Unintentional non-verbal behaviors.
Influences on nonverbal communication.
Six types of expressions used universally.
Functions of nonverbal communication (NC).
repeating emblems deliberate nonverbal behaviors.
substituting.- emblems replace verbal message.
complementing - voice & nc say same thing.
accenting pointing finger in emphasis.
regulating - pause in speech indicate others turn to speak.
contradicting - angry but saying not .
deceiving - not al is self-serving or malicious; white lie.
Types of nonverbal communication (nc)
- use of manipulators (body movements).
Face & Eyes - affect blends (blending of manipulators)
- tone, pitch, rate (paralanguage).
communicating through touch need for our health.
physical attractiveness -
Clothing - economic status
Linear communication model what are the three types of "noise" mean?
external - make it hard to hear.
physiological - illness, fatigue.
psycological - unwilling to accept truth (failed test).
Linear Communication model - environment
Johari window defined?
a model developed by luft & Harrington Ingman to help understand the relationship between the various ideas we present about ourselves.
Language is symbolic.
Symbols - arbitrary constructions that represent a communicator thoughts.
Meanings are in people not words.
Language is symbolic - Phonological rules.
govern how words sound when pronounced.
he could lead if he would get the lead out.
Language is symbolic - Syntactic rules.
govern the structure of language - the way symbols can be arranged.
Have you the cookies brought?
Language is symbolic - Semantic rules.
deal with the meaning of specific words. misunderstandings occur when words can e interpreded in more than one way.
panda mating fails; veterinarian takes over.
Language is symbolic - Pragmatic rules.
govern how people use language in everyday interactions.
episode in which the comment occurs.
best known declaration of linguistic determinism.
reflects worldview more like a motion picture.
Content and relational messages - Content messages.
which focus on the subject being discussed are the most obvious.
Content & relational messages - Relational messages.
which make statements about how the parties feel toward one another.
Content and relational messages - affinity
the degree to which people like or appreciate one another.
Content and relational messages - Respect.
is the degree to which we admire others and hold them in esteem.
Content and relational messages - Immediacy.
describe the degree of interest and attraction we feel toward and communicate to others.
Content and relational messages - Control
the amount of influence communicators seek.
levels of intimacy in interpersonal communication
Physical (kissing, touching, hugging).
Knapp's developmental model.
Coming together = initiating, experimenting, intensifiying, integrating, bonding->.
Comming appart = Differentiating, circumscribing, stagnating, avoiding, terminating <-.
Knapps model - relational maintenance.
integrating bonding differentiating circumscribing.
the process of deliberately reveling info about oneself that is significant and that would not normally be known to others.
revelations (understanding yourself;talking it out)
Social penetration theory.
first dimension of self disclosure in this model involves the breadth of information volunteered.
second dimension of self disclosure in this model involves the depth of information volunteered.
Benefits of Disclosure.
better self understanding.
sharing of concerns.
Risks of self disclosure.
vulnerability - exploited.
overexposure - too much too soon.
Improving interpersonal relationships - Confirming messages,
Improving interpersonal relationsips - Disconfirming messages - negative climate.
Shorten interaction w/them.
Communication climate developed.
confirming = climate positive one
Disconfirming = climate hostile one.
Communicaiton climates developed - self-perpetuating spiral
reciprocating communication pattern in which persons message reinforces others.
Communication climate develop - Escalatory conflict spirls
are most visible way that disconfirming messages reinforce one another. (fighting)
Communication climates develop - Deescalatory conflict spirals.
can also be destructive - rather than fighting the parties slowly lessen their dependence on one another, withdrwa and become less invested in the relationship.
What is a group?
a small collection of people when interact with each other usually face to face overtime in orde to reach goals. 2-20people. Interdependant on each other.
Goals of groups and their memebers?
Task orientation - getting the job done.
Social orientation - seeking sence of belonging.
Hidden agenda - individual goal
Types of Groups.
decision making methods.
consensus - everyone agrees.
Majority Control - quicker, majority might not be best.
Expert opinion - give up control to expert, quick, not necessarly best.
Minority control - committees to control, curriculum committee.
Authority rule - superfast, unhappy people.
Individualistic vs collective
Individual vs collective.
yourself vs team player.
rewards for bing about ourselves vs share responsiblity & admits mistaks.
capalistic vs dictator.
europe/us/canada/alstralia vs lain america/asia.
advantages of group problem solving.
developmental stages in problem solving.
overcoming obstacles of group discussion
information - underload/overload.
pressure to conform.
characteristics - highly cohesive.
symptoms - illusion of vulnerability.
Defective decision - making incomplete survey of hte alternatives.
responsibilities in a small group.
be committed to the group goal.
fufill individual assignment.
avoid interpersonal conflicts.
encourage full participation.
keep the discussion on track.