Speech Final

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  1. What is the definition of communication?
    refers to the process of human beings responding to the symbolic behavior of other persons.
  2. 5 Types of Communications.
    • Intrapersonal communication.
    • Dyadic/Interpersonal Communication.
    • Small Group Communication.
    • Public Communication.
    • Mass Communication.
  3. Functions of Communication.
    • Physical needs.
    • Indentity needs.
    • Social needs.
    • Practical needs.
  4. Characteristics of competent communicators.
    • A wide range of behaviors.
    • Ability to choose the most appropriate behavior.
    • Skills at performing behaviors.
    • Empathy/Perspective taking.
    • Cognitive Complexity.
    • Self-monitoring.
    • Commitment to the relationship.
  5. Self Concept
    • is a set of relatively stable perceptions that each of us holds about ourselves.
    • is our perception of ourselves, i is unique it makes us similar to others and different from others.
  6. Lookinig-glass self.
    • Introduced in 1902 by Charles H. Cooley.
    • suggested that we put ourselves in the position of other people and then, in our mind's eye, view ourselves as we imagine they see us.
  7. Self-fulfilling prophecy.
    • Occurs when a person's expectations of an outcome makes the outcome more likely to occur than would otherwise have been true.
    • Type 1:occurs when your own expectations influence your behavior.
    • Type 2:occurs when the expectations o on person govern another's actions.
  8. First impressions.
    • Labeling people according to our first impressions is an inevitable part of the perception process.
    • Labels are a way of making interpretations.
  9. We are influenced by the most obvious.
    • There are three factors that cause us to notice some messages and ignore others.
    • Intense (loud music).
    • Reptitious (dripping faucet).
    • Contrastive (normally happy is grumpy).
    • Motives.
  10. Situational factors in relation to perception.
    • Relational Satisfaction.
    • Degree of Involvement with the other person.
    • Past experience.
    • Expectations.
    • Social Roles.
    • Knowledge.
    • Self Concept.
  11. Define Empathy.
    Is the ability to re-create another person's perspective, to experience the world form the other's point of view.
  12. Challenges to listening.
    • Pseudo listening - faking it.
    • Selective listening - only parts you want to hear.
    • Defensive listening - someone to attack.
    • Ambushing - listening to info to attack.
    • Insulating listening - ignoring what said/not agreeing.
    • Stage hogging - listening to take attention back to yourself.
  13. Reasons for poor listening.
    • not concetrating.
    • listening too hard - writing down everyting instead of main points.
    • jumping to conclusions.
    • focusing on delivery and personal appearance.
  14. Types of listening.
    • Appreciative listening - music, comedy.
    • Comprehensive listening - to understand.
    • Evaluative listening - listen to make a judgement.
    • Empathetic listening - putting self in someone's shoes.
  15. Characteristics of nonverbal communication.
    • NC exists - ideas on how others feel w/o words.
    • N Behavior has communicative value - unintentional & intentional.
    • NC is Primarily Relational - serve utilitarian functions, identity management, convey emotions.
    • NC is Ambiguous - difficult to interpret.
    • NC is different from Verbal Communication -often unintended & unconscious.
    • N skills are Important - impossible to study spoken w/o paying attention to nonverbal.
  16. Unintentional non-verbal behaviors.
    • stammer.
    • blush.
    • frown.
    • sweat.
  17. Influences on nonverbal communication.
    • Culture.
    • Gender.
  18. Six types of expressions used universally.
    • Happiness.
    • Sadness.
    • Fear.
    • Anger.
    • Disgust.
    • Surprise.
  19. Functions of nonverbal communication (NC).
    • repeating emblems deliberate nonverbal behaviors.
    • substituting.- emblems replace verbal message.
    • complementing - voice & nc say same thing.
    • accenting pointing finger in emphasis.
    • regulating - pause in speech indicate others turn to speak.
    • contradicting - angry but saying not .
    • deceiving - not al is self-serving or malicious; white lie.
  20. Types of nonverbal communication (nc)
    • Kinesics - use of manipulators (body movements).
    • Face & Eyes - affect blends (blending of manipulators)
    • Vocalics - tone, pitch, rate (paralanguage).
    • Tactile - communicating through touch need for our health.
    • physical attractiveness -
    • Clothing - economic status
  21. Linear communication model what are the three types of "noise" mean?
    • external - make it hard to hear.
    • physiological - illness, fatigue.
    • psycological - unwilling to accept truth (failed test).
  22. Linear Communication model - environment
    • physical location.
    • persons experience.
    • cultural background.
  23. Johari window defined?
    a model developed by luft & Harrington Ingman to help understand the relationship between the various ideas we present about ourselves.
  24. Language is symbolic.
    • Symbols - arbitrary constructions that represent a communicator thoughts.
    • Meanings are in people not words.
  25. Language is symbolic - Phonological rules.
    • govern how words sound when pronounced.
    • he could lead if he would get the lead out.
  26. Language is symbolic - Syntactic rules.
    • govern the structure of language - the way symbols can be arranged.
    • Have you the cookies brought?
  27. Language is symbolic - Semantic rules.
    • deal with the meaning of specific words. misunderstandings occur when words can e interpreded in more than one way.
    • panda mating fails; veterinarian takes over.
  28. Language is symbolic - Pragmatic rules.
    • govern how people use language in everyday interactions.
    • self concept.
    • episode in which the comment occurs.
    • perceivd relationship.
    • cultural background.
  29. Whorf-sapir hypothesis
    • best known declaration of linguistic determinism.
    • reflects worldview more like a motion picture.
  30. Content and relational messages - Content messages.
    which focus on the subject being discussed are the most obvious.
  31. Content & relational messages - Relational messages.
    which make statements about how the parties feel toward one another.
  32. Content and relational messages - affinity
    the degree to which people like or appreciate one another.
  33. Content and relational messages - Respect.
    is the degree to which we admire others and hold them in esteem.
  34. Content and relational messages - Immediacy.
    describe the degree of interest and attraction we feel toward and communicate to others.
  35. Content and relational messages - Control
    the amount of influence communicators seek.
  36. levels of intimacy in interpersonal communication
    • Physical (kissing, touching, hugging).
    • Intellectual Intimacy.
    • Emotional Disclosure.
  37. Knapp's developmental model.
    • Coming together = initiating, experimenting, intensifiying, integrating, bonding->.
    • Comming appart = Differentiating, circumscribing, stagnating, avoiding, terminating <-.
  38. Knapps model - relational maintenance.
    integrating bonding differentiating circumscribing.
  39. Self discolsure.
    • the process of deliberately reveling info about oneself that is significant and that would not normally be known to others.
    • Honesty.
    • Trust.
    • Catharisis.
    • revelations (understanding yourself;talking it out)
  40. Social penetration theory.
    • first dimension of self disclosure in this model involves the breadth of information volunteered.
    • second dimension of self disclosure in this model involves the depth of information volunteered.
  41. Benefits of Disclosure.
    • better self understanding.
    • sharing of concerns.
    • slef revelation.
    • relationship nurturance.
  42. Risks of self disclosure.
    • vulnerability - exploited.
    • overexposure - too much too soon.
    • dislike.
  43. Improving interpersonal relationships - Confirming messages,
    • recognition.
    • acknowledgement.
    • endorsement.
    • positive climates.
  44. Improving interpersonal relationsips - Disconfirming messages - negative climate.
    • Avoidance.
    • deception.
    • degrading (respect).
    • Humoring (condescending).
    • Shorten interaction w/them.
  45. Communication climate developed.
    • confirming = climate positive one
    • Disconfirming = climate hostile one.
  46. Communicaiton climates developed - self-perpetuating spiral
    reciprocating communication pattern in which persons message reinforces others.
  47. Communication climate develop - Escalatory conflict spirls
    are most visible way that disconfirming messages reinforce one another. (fighting)
  48. Communication climates develop - Deescalatory conflict spirals.
    can also be destructive - rather than fighting the parties slowly lessen their dependence on one another, withdrwa and become less invested in the relationship.
  49. What is a group?
    a small collection of people when interact with each other usually face to face overtime in orde to reach goals. 2-20people. Interdependant on each other.
  50. Goals of groups and their memebers?
    • Individual goals.
    • Group Goals.
  51. Individual goals.
    • Task orientation - getting the job done.
    • Social orientation - seeking sence of belonging.
  52. Group Goals
    • to win.
    • Hidden agenda - individual goal
  53. Types of Groups.
    • Learning groups.
    • problem-solving groups.
    • Social groups.
    • Growth groups.
  54. decision making methods.
    • consensus - everyone agrees.
    • Majority Control - quicker, majority might not be best.
    • Expert opinion - give up control to expert, quick, not necessarly best.
    • Minority control - committees to control, curriculum committee.
    • Authority rule - superfast, unhappy people.
  55. Individualistic vs collective
    • Individual vs collective.
    • yourself vs team player.
    • rewards for bing about ourselves vs share responsiblity & admits mistaks.
    • capalistic vs dictator.
    • europe/us/canada/alstralia vs lain america/asia.
  56. advantages of group problem solving.
    • resources.
    • accuracy.
    • commitment.
  57. developmental stages in problem solving.
    • orientation stage.
    • conflict stage.
    • emergence stage.
    • reinforcement stage.
  58. overcoming obstacles of group discussion
    • information - underload/overload.
    • Unequal participatoin.
    • pressure to conform.
    • groupthink.
    • characteristics - highly cohesive.
    • symptoms - illusion of vulnerability.
    • Defective decision - making incomplete survey of hte alternatives.
  59. responsibilities in a small group.
    • be committed to the group goal.
    • fufill individual assignment.
    • avoid interpersonal conflicts.
    • encourage full participation.
    • keep the discussion on track.
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Speech Final

Speech Final Fall 09
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