Anatomy- Reproductive Organs.txt

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Mawad
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291700
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Anatomy- Reproductive Organs.txt
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2014-12-15 20:40:34
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repro anatomy
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vetmed
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  1. Connective tissue-filled fissure (potential space) between the external and internal abdominal oblique muscles and their aponeuroses, extending from the deep to the superficial inguinal rings.
    inguinal canal
  2. An external opening of the inguinal canal, slit of external abdominal oblique aponeuroses.
    Superficial inguinal ring
  3. An abdominal entrance/ opening into the inguinal canal; a slitlike opening at the caudal edge of the internal abdominal oblique.
    Deep inguinal ring
  4. Caudal border of the aponeurosis of the external abdominal oblique that forms the caudal border of the inguinal canal.
    Inguinal ligament
  5. What 4 structures pass through the inguinal canal?
    external pudendal a. and v., genitofemoral n., vaginal process (female), spermatic cord (male)
  6. What five structures make up the spermatic cord?
    ductus deferens, testicular a. and v., mesoductus deferens, mesorchium
  7. The spermatic cord begins at the _____________, the point at which its component parts converge to leave the abdominal cavity.
    deep inguinal ring
  8. Fold of peritoneum that is continuous with the parietal and visceral vaginal tunics that contains the testicular artery and vein, the testicular lymphatics, and the testicular plexus of autonomic nerves.
    mesorchium
  9. The ductus deferens is attached to the mesorchium by the _____________.
    mesoductus deferens
  10. The cremaster muscle is not part of the _________.
    spermatic cord
  11. A descent of the testis from the intra-abdominal into a scrotal position, essential in most animals for normal fertility.
    testicular migration
  12. In dogs, testicular migration occurs at the time of...
    birth
  13. Failure of one or both testicles to descend to the scrotum.
    cryptochidism
  14. In a cryptorchid dog, the retained testicle can be found...
    between the caudal pole of the kidney and the deep inguinal ring
  15. What structures can you use to find a retained testicle in a cryptorchid?
    ductus deferens, testicular a. and v.
  16. What can be a result of cryprtorchidism and why?
    infertility because the high temperature (37°C) will reduce or eliminate spermatogenesis, which should occur at 35°C
  17. How is testicular temperature regulated in a normal animal? (3)
    pampiniform plexus maintains low testicular temperature, cremaster muscle increases testicular temperature, evaporation of sweat from the scrotum
  18. The cremaster muscle arises from the caudal border of the ____________.
    internal abdominal oblique m.
  19. The vaginal tunic ha what two components?
    parietal vaginal tunic, visceral vaginal tunic
  20. Pouch of skin divided by a median septum into two cavities, each of which occupied by a testis, and epididymis, and the distal part of the spermatic cord.
    scrotum
  21. The subcutaneous tissue of the scrotum is called the ___________.
    tunica dartos
  22. The parietal peritoneum of the abdominal cavity is analogous to the ________ of the scrotum (vaginal cavity).
    parietal vaginal tunic
  23. The visceral peritoneum of the abdomen is analogous to the ___________ of the scrotum.
    visceral vaginal tunic
  24. The testis produce...
    testosterone and spermatogonia
  25. Sperm is developed/produced in the ________ within the ___________.
    seminiferous tubules; testicular parenchyma
  26. The stroma of the testis has what 2 components?
    tunica albuginea, mediastinum
  27. Where spermatozoa are stored before ejaculation.
    epididymis
  28. The epididymis consists of an __________________, the coils of which are held together by _____________.
    elongated, convoluted tube; collagenous connective tissue
  29. The head of the epididymis is on the _________ of the testis.
    cranial pole
  30. The body of the epididymis passes _________ on the ________ of the testis.
    caudally; dorsal margin
  31. The tail of the epididymis is located on the ___________ of the _________, and continues on as the ___________.
    caudal pole; testis; ductus deferens
  32. The ligament from the tail of the epididymis to the testis.
    proper ligament of the testis
  33. The ligament from the tail of the epididymis to the vaginal tunic and spermatic fascia.
    ligament of the tail of the epididymis
  34. The ductus deferens travels beside the ______________, up the _____________, and through the _____________ to reach the ___________.
    body of the epididymis; spermatic cord; inguinal canal; abdomen
  35. Running in a fold of the ________, the ductus deferens crosses __________ to the ureter at the ___________ and penetrates the ___________ to open into the urethra, lateral to the ___________.
    peritoneum; ventral; lateral ligament of the bladder; prostate; colliculus seminalis
  36. The pelvic part of the male urethra.
    colliculus seminalis
  37. The penis (phallus) extends from the _________, and runs cranially (not in the cat) between the __________.
    ischiatic arch; thighs
  38. The distal part of the penis.
    glans
  39. What are the 3 components of the corpus cavernosum penis?
    right and left crus, tunica albuginea
  40. The right and left crus of the penis are part of the ____________ and are located at the ________ of the penis.
    corpus cavernosum; root
  41. What are the 3 components of the corpus spongiosum penis?
    bulbs of the penis, bulbus glandis and pars longa glandis (glans of the penis)
  42. What is unique about the cat glans penis?
    cornified penile spines in unneutered cats
  43. Cats are induced ovulators; how does the male play a role in this?
    penile spines play a role in mechanical stimulation of the cervix, promoting the ovulatory process
  44. The muscle of the penis that arises from the ischiatic tuberosity, covers the origin of the crus, and inserts distally on the crus.
    ischiocavernousus muscle
  45. The muscle of the penis that is an elongated slip of mixed smooth and striated muscle fibers that originate from the ventral surface of the sacrum, blend with the external anal sphincter, and extends distally on the ventral surface of the penis to the level of the glans, where it inserts.
    retractor penis muscle
  46. The muscle of the penis that bulges between the ischiocavernosus muscles ventral to the external anal sphincter.
    bulbospongiosus muscle
  47. The fibers of the bulbospongiosus muscle run _________ proximally, where they cover the _______________; they run __________ distally, where they pass onto the _____________.
    transverse; bulbs of the penis; longitudinally; body of the penis
  48. Long, ventrally grooved bone that lies almost entirely within the glans penis.
    os penis
  49. The base and body of the os penis are grooved ventrally by the ___________, which surrounds the urethra and the corpus spongiosum on three sides.
    urethral groove
  50. Why i the urethral groove clinically relevant?
    bladder stones will get stopped up here and cause a blockage that is very painful and prevents the passage of urine
  51. The reflection of the prepuce onto the body of the penis.
    fornix of the prepuce
  52. Bilobed structure that completely surrounds the neck of the bladder and beginning of the urethra.
    prostate
  53. What two accessory genital glands does the cat have?
    prostate and bulbourethral glands
  54. Very large prostate that can cause problems with urination.
    prostate hyperplasia
  55. The ovaries lie in close contact with the...
    caudal poles of the kidneys
  56. How is the right ovary related to the descending duodenum?
    the right ovary is dorsal to the descending duodenum
  57. Where is the left ovary located?
    between the descending colon and the abdominal wall
  58. The ovaries' functions include... (2)
    maturation of female germ cells and hormone production
  59. What hormones do the ovaries produce?
    estrogen and progesterone
  60. The ovary is enclosed in the ____________, which is made up of ... (2)
    ovarian bursa; mesovarium and mesosalpinx
  61. The ovarian bursa has an opening to the peritoneal cavity on the _________ side.
    medial
  62. Enlarged proximal end of the uterine tube, which is the site of fertilization.
    infundibulum
  63. Finger-like processes at the end of the infundibulum.
    fimbriae
  64. What is the function of the infundibulum?
    to close the opening of the ovarian bursa into the peritoneal cavity at the time of ovulation in order to prevent transperitoneal migration of the ova
  65. Location where the uterine tube opens to the uterine horn.
    tubouterine junction
  66. The duct running from the ovary to the uterine horn to transport the ova from the ovary and sperm from the uterus for fertilization.
    uterine tube/ oviduct/ fallopian tube
  67. The uterine tube runs between the....
    layers of the mesosalpinx
  68. Peritoneum that attaches the uterine tube to the mesovarium.
    mesosalpinx
  69. Hypertrophy of the endometrium forms a _______ to serve as a source of ______________ after fertilization and implantation.
    placenta; embryonic and fetal nourishment
  70. Uterine neck.
    cervix
  71. The cervix is directed ___________ from the uterus, and it protrudes into the __________ and lies diagonally across the ____________.
    caudoventrally; vagina; uterovaginal junction
  72. The internal uterine orifice of the cervix projects ____________; the external uterine orifice of the cervix projects ___________.
    cranially; caudoventrally
  73. The vagina is a dilatable canal that is musculomembranous and extends from the _______ of the uterus to the ________.
    cervix; vestibule
  74. The fornix is the slit-like space that is __________ to the cervix.
    ventral
  75. The space connecting the vagina with the external genital opening (vulva) that belongs to both the urinary and genitals systems.
    vestibule
  76. The urethra originates from the __________ and enters the genital tract at the _____________, opening on a papilla called the ___________.
    urinary bladder; vaginovestibular junction; urethral tubercle
  77. The external urethral orifice is ________ and ________ to the fossa clitoridis; this is important to know for ____________.
    dorsal; cranial; catheterization
  78. What are the 2 points of union for the labia?
    dorsal and ventral commissures
  79. The fossa clitoridis of a female is equivalent to the __________ of a male.
    prepuce
  80. Part of the broad ligament of the uterus that goes from the uterus to the body wall.
    mesometrium
  81. The part of the mesometrium that travels through the inguinal canal is the ________, and it becomes the _________ on the outside of the abdominal cavity.
    round ligament of the uterus; vaginal process
  82. The portion of the broad ligament of the uterus that suspends the ovaries.
    mesovarium
  83. The portion of the broad ligament of the uterus that stretches from the ovary to the level of the uterine tube.
    mesosalpinx
  84. The ligament that attaches the ovary to the uterine horn.
    proper ligament of the ovary
  85. Fold of peritoneum that extends out from the ovary to the wall of the pelvis.
    suspensory ligament of the ovary
  86. The internal iliac a. (termination of aorta) branches to the _____________ and _____________.
    caudal gluteal a. and internal pudendal a.
  87. The internal pudendal a. (from internal iliac a., from aorta) gives rise to the _____________ in females (which subsequently gives rise to the ____________); in males the internal pudendal a. gives rise to the ___________ (which subsequently gives rise to the __________).
    vaginal a.; uterine a.; prostatic a.; deferential a.
  88. Caudally, the internal pudendal a. (from internal iliac a., from aorta) gives rise to the _________, which supplies the external genitalia.
    artery of the clitoris/penis
  89. The uterine a. (from internal pudendal a., from internal iliac a., from aorta) travels __________ along the uterus and anastomoses with the __________, which travels ________ along the uterus.
    cranially; ovarian a.; caudally
  90. The __________ comes off at around the same levels at the internal iliac aa.
    umbilical a.
  91. The median sacral a. branches at the same level as the __________ a travels _________ to the ________.
    internal iliac aa.; dorsally; tail

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