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FST beer brewing bamforth ucd
FST003 Final flashcards for Charlie Bamforth's Beer and Brewing course at UC Davis
How is beer strength measured?
As % alcohol by vol (ABV)
True or False: % alcohol by weight is <ABV
True: 1 mL of ethanol weighs less than 1 gram
What is the typical strength of beers worldwide?
Who is the biggest brewing company in the world?
Where is the majority of beer in the world brewed?
Who drinks the most beer in the world?
What is the major component of any beer by wt?
What is the least cost contributor to a bottle of beer?
What is the highest cost contributor to a bottle of beer?
What is the biggest selling style of beer?
List the 3 steps in a malting operation
List the 6 basic steps in a brewing operation
1. malt storage
4. wort separation
Ale or Lager: Which has higher malt modification?
Ale or Lager: which has a higher intensity of kilning?
Ale or Lager: which uses dry/late hopping?
Ale is dry-hopped
Lager is late-hopped
Ale or Lager: which is top/bottom fermenting?
What is the fermentation temp for ale?
What is the fermentation temp for lager?
Ale or Lager: Bock?
Ale or Lager: Alt?
Ale or Lager: Kolsch?
Ale or Lager: Porter?
Ale or Lager: Helles?
Ale or Lager: Marzen?
Ale or Lager: Stout?
What makes a beer light?
What are draft beers?
Non-pasteurized or sold on tap beer
What is the main gas component of beer?
Why do brewer's deliberately add Nitrogen?
To improve foam
What gas promotes beer staling?
What is the main surface-active component that stabilizes beer foam?
Where does the protein in beer originate from?
What does the protein in beer cross-link with?
Hop bitter acids
What destroys foam in beer?
Fat/lipids and alcohol
What is spontaneous foaming in beer called?
What causes gushing in beer?
Where does Fusarium come from?
What causes the color in beer?
Where are melanoidins formed?
During kilning from the sugars and amino acids
Aside from kilning, where can color come from?
The oxidation of polyphenols/tannins
What is the main source of haze in beer?
the joining together of protein and polyphenols
How is the protein in beer detected?
What are the 4 basic tastes?
sweet, sour, salty, bitter
What causes sweet, sour, salty, and bitter respectively?
sugar, salt, low pH, hops
What is the pH of most beers?
How is the pH of wort different than that of beer?
The pH of wort is 5.0-5.5
Where do the fruity flavors in beer come from?
What flavor does dimethyl sulfide cause?
Canned corn flavor
What flavor does diacetyl cause?
What causes skunking in beer?
What does the trigeminal nerve detect?
What causes the smoothness in Guinness?
What risk is reduced by the moderate consumption of beer?
Death via atherosclerosis
What is the active ingredient in beer that reduces the risk of death?
Which vitamins are found in beer?
What is the major cause of calories in beer?
Why is beer relatively resistant to microbial spoilage?
Because of the iso-alpha-acids
What is the major source of carbohydrates for making beer?
Weizenbiers are made using a lot of what?
Wheat (typically 50%)
What are the two Latin names for barley?
Hordeum vulgare (6-row)
Hordeum distichon (2-row)
What does 2-row barley tend to generate?
More starch = more sugar = more extract
Should you use 2 or 6 row barley if there are lots of adjuncts?
6-row barley because it has more protein to convert the adjuncts
Name the roles of the tissues in barley: husk, micropyle, embryo, aleurone, endosperm
: filter bed in brewhouse
: water entry into grain
: food storage (starch)
What is the first stage of malting?
Where should the moisture content be increased to during steeping?
What is the typical steeping temp range?
How long does steeping take?
What is the second stage of malting?
How long does germination last?
What is the typical temperature of germination?
What is the purpose of germination?
To break down the cell wall of the endosperm and make enzymes
What is the third stage of malting?
Why is the temperature gradually increased throughout the kilning process?
Enzymes are more sensitive to heat when there are high moisture levels
Why do ale malts develop more color and flavor than lager malts?
Because they are treated at higher temps
How are a range of specialty malts produced?
What is the Latin name for hops?
What are the active brewing ingredients in hops?
Resins and oils
Where are the resins and oils found in hops?
What is the chemical name for the bitterness precursors?
What happens to the alpha acids during boiling?
They are converted to iso-alpha-acids
How are hops classified?
As bitter, aromatic, or dual purpose
What is the difference in hops classification?
Quality of aroma and level of resin
In what forms can hops be used?
Typically added as pellets, but can also be added as liquid CO2 extracts
What is the liquid obtained in mashing called?
What is the first stage and temp in starch breakdown
Gelatinization which occurs at 65C for malt starch
How many barrels of water are used for every barrel of beer?
About 3.5 in a well-run brewery
What does hard water contain?
High level of Calcium
What is an example of hard water used to brew beer?
Burton (bass beer)
What is an example of water with low levels of Calcium?
What are alternate sources of sugar called in brewing?
Which starches need to be cooked before use?
Corn, rice, sorghum
What kind of mills are used when using a lauter tun?
What kind of mills are used when a brewer is using a mash filter?
What is Darcy's law?
rate of wort flow = P * bed permeability * filtration area/ bed depth * viscosity
Why is wort boiled?
Sterilization, precipitation, volitilization, concentration, isomerization (of hop resins)
What is the solid material produced in boiling called?
How is hot break/trub removed?
In a hop back or whirpool depending on the mode of hopping
What is the solid material produced in cooling?
What is the Latin name for ale yeast?
What is the Latin name for lager yeast?
How can yeast age be assessed?
By counting bud scars
Why does yeast need some oxygen in brewery fermentations?
Needs O to synthesize membrane lipids
What is the customary pitching rate?
1 million cell/mL/degree Plato
How is yeast count usually performed?
Using a hemocytometer
How is the viability of yeast assessed?
How are fermentations accelerated?
By adding zinc
What is high gravity brewing?
Producing beer from a higher strength wort than is needed for a given beer strength
dilution is the last stage in the process
What is the noxious flavor generated during fermentation?
Diacetyl, tastes like buttered popcorn
How is diacetyl removed?
By prolonged contact of yeast itself to mop up the flavor
To what temp is beer chilled after fermentation and why?
-1C to aid stabilization
How can settling of solids in beer be enhanced?
By adding isinglass (fish bladder)
How is beer filtered?
Either perlite or diatomaceous earth
How are residual microbes removed?
by pasteurization or membrane filtration
What is the CO2 level increased to following pasteurization?
Between 2-3 vol
What are the filling rates in bottles?
What are the filling rates in cans?
What was the initial language of U.S Brewmaster's association
Who produced the most beer in 1950?
Why did brewer's use nylon?
To remove the tannins/polyphenols from beer
What is liquor to a brewer?
Salt compound of water used in the malting process
What was plumage archer?
A barley strain
What was pure serendipity?
The discovery of the malting process
What is racking?
What is the most profound antimicrobial activity in beer?
Tannins, iso-alpha-acids, which suppress bacterial growth
What is ice beer?
Increasing the alcohol by freezing out water
What is dry beer?
Lager with a low proportion of sugar
What is a widget?
a piece of plastic put into a can that flexes causing bubbles of the nitrogen gas
Who is George Hodgson?
Made the 1st IPA
How do we produce non-alcoholic beer?
Most commonly, we limit fermentation or strip out the alcohol
What is a hydrometer?
measure the specific gravity of wort
What does fermentation do to the specific gravity?
It causes a drop
What is the difference between high gravity brewing and sales strength brewing?
High gravity brewing dilutes the beer before packaging
What are the top 4 most consumed liquids in the U.S.?
1. Carbonated drinks
3. Bottle H2O
How many years has beer been drank?
6-8 thousand years
Where did beer first originate?
How was beer originally made?
Half-baked loaves of bread mixed with water and crumbled, then forced through the bottom of a woven basket into a clay jar which was airtight and sealed with a plug of nile mud
Why was beer important to the Egyptians?
It was currency and played a central role in religion
How did beer change nomadic civilization?
Made it static
True or False: Beer originated in one country
False, it probably originated in many place at once
What did William of Malmesbury think of beer?
He thought people who drank beer were less civilized than the Normans and the French who drank wine
What was an ale-connor?
Quality control for beer who would wear plastic pants and sit in the beer, if it stuck there was too much sugar
What were the females that brewed beer usually called?
What is Chicha?
Beer made by women of the Quechua Indians who chew the grains to process them
Why was it that lager-style beer actually began to be made?
A prince banned summer brewing in 1533
Who started the first commercial brewery?
Who opened the first North American brewery in 1613?
When did Prohibition end?
January 17, 1920
What happened to the number of drunk driving offenses in Chicago after prohibition?
When did Prohibition end and what was the last dry state?
Ended 1933, but the last dry state was Mississippi
In 1945, how many breweries were there and how much did they produce?
465 producing 190 thousand each by avg
Who signed legislation making home-brewing legal?
President Jimmy Carter
Who was the first person to see yeast?
Antonie can Leeuwenhoak in Delft
Who was the first person to understand fermentation and spoilage?
True or false: Gin did not require a license to produce
What occurs to ales after fermentation?
1. primed with extra sugars
2. dry hopped with a handful of cones
3. dosed with isinglass finings
4. racked in casks
What is a stout?
dark beer with burnt, smoky flavors due to roasted barley adjuncts
uses nitrogen gas to smooth palate and give a rich, white, creamy foam
What are the characteristics of Trappist beers?
Dark, very bitter, acidic, fruity, up to 12.5%ABV
What are the 5 things that affect the overall flavor of beer?
malt, yeast, adjuncts, water, hops
What is the flavor threshold?
the concentration at which a substance becomes detectible, flavor is more potent at lower thresholds
What causes sweetness in beers?
residual sugars or added sugars (primings)
What two chemicals add salty flavor to beer?
Sodium and potassium
What substance adds bitterness to beer?
Iso-alpha-acids from hops
What are the 3 things that help flavor stability?
1. low oxygen
2. low temperature
3. sulfur dioxide
Why do brewer's want to keep sulfur dioxide to a minimum?
Over 10 mg/L has to be labeled
What is beer a good source of?
Folate, silicon, and B12
Phosphorus. magnesium, and soluble fiber
What is the main source of calories in beer?
What lowers the apparent threshold for harmful alcohol effects?
Where does most if not all of the cardiovascular benefit come from in beer?
What does the World Health Organization suggest should be the daily max intake of alcohol?
60g/3 pints of a 5% ABV beer
True or False: Alcohol is more addictive than caffeine
False. Caffeine has actual addictive properties and causes withdrawal symptoms