FST003 Final

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FST003 Final
2014-12-16 15:57:42
FST beer brewing bamforth ucd

FST003 Final flashcards for Charlie Bamforth's Beer and Brewing course at UC Davis
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  1. How is beer strength measured?
    As % alcohol by vol (ABV)
  2. True or False: % alcohol by weight is <ABV
    True: 1 mL of ethanol weighs less than 1 gram
  3. What is the typical strength of beers worldwide?
    4.0-5.2 ABV
  4. Who is the biggest brewing company in the world?
    Annheuser-Busch Inbev
  5. Where is the majority of beer in the world brewed?
  6. Who drinks the most beer in the world?
    the Czechs
  7. What is the major component of any beer by wt?
  8. What is the least cost contributor to a bottle of beer?
  9. What is the highest cost contributor to a bottle of beer?
    The bottle
  10. What is the biggest selling style of beer?
    Light beer
  11. List the 3 steps in a malting operation
    • 1. steeping
    • 2. germination
    • 3. kilning
  12. List the 6 basic steps in a brewing operation
    • 1. malt storage
    • 2. milling
    • 3. mashing
    • 4. wort separation
    • 5. boiling
    • 6. clarification
  13. Ale or Lager: Which has higher malt modification?
  14. Ale or Lager: which has a higher intensity of kilning?
  15. Ale or Lager: which uses dry/late hopping?
    • Ale is dry-hopped
    • Lager is late-hopped
  16. Ale or Lager: which is top/bottom fermenting?
    • Ale: top-fermenting
    • Lager: bottom-fermenting
  17. What is the fermentation temp for ale?
  18. What is the fermentation temp for lager?
  19. Ale or Lager: Bock?
  20. Ale or Lager: Alt?
  21. Ale or Lager: Kolsch?
  22. Ale or Lager: Porter?
  23. Ale or Lager: Helles?
  24. Ale or Lager: Marzen?
  25. Ale or Lager: Stout?
  26. What makes a beer light?
    Fewer carbs
  27. What are draft beers?
    Non-pasteurized or sold on tap beer
  28. What is the main gas component of beer?
  29. Why do brewer's deliberately add Nitrogen?
    To improve foam
  30. What gas promotes beer staling?
  31. What is the main surface-active component that stabilizes beer foam?
  32. Where does the protein in beer originate from?
  33. What does the protein in beer cross-link with?
    Hop bitter acids
  34. What destroys foam in beer?
    Fat/lipids and alcohol
  35. What is spontaneous foaming in beer called?
  36. What causes gushing in beer?
  37. Where does Fusarium come from?
    Infected grain
  38. What causes the color in beer?
  39. Where are melanoidins formed?
    During kilning from the sugars and amino acids
  40. Aside from kilning, where can color come from?
    The oxidation of polyphenols/tannins
  41. What is the main source of haze in beer?
    the joining together of protein and polyphenols
  42. How is the protein in beer detected?
    By nose
  43. What are the 4 basic tastes?
    sweet, sour, salty, bitter
  44. What causes sweet, sour, salty, and bitter respectively?
    sugar, salt, low pH, hops
  45. What is the pH of most beers?
  46. How is the pH of wort different than that of beer?
    The pH of wort is 5.0-5.5
  47. Where do the fruity flavors in beer come from?
  48. What flavor does dimethyl sulfide cause?
    Canned corn flavor
  49. What flavor does diacetyl cause?
    Butterscotch/buttered popcorn
  50. What causes skunking in beer?
  51. What does the trigeminal nerve detect?
  52. What causes the smoothness in Guinness?
  53. What risk is reduced by the moderate consumption of beer?
    Death via atherosclerosis
  54. What is the active ingredient in beer that reduces the risk of death?
  55. Which vitamins are found in beer?
  56. What is the major cause of calories in beer?
  57. Why is beer relatively resistant to microbial spoilage?
    Because of the iso-alpha-acids
  58. What is the major source of carbohydrates for making beer?
    Malted barley
  59. Weizenbiers are made using a lot of what?
    Wheat (typically 50%)
  60. What are the two Latin names for barley?
    Hordeum vulgareĀ (6-row) and Hordeum distichon (2-row)
  61. What does 2-row barley tend to generate?
    More starch = more sugar = more extract
  62. Should you use 2 or 6 row barley if there are lots of adjuncts?
    6-row barley because it has more protein to convert the adjuncts
  63. Name the roles of the tissues in barley: husk, micropyle, embryo, aleurone, endosperm
    • Husk: filter bed in brewhouse
    • Micropyle: water entry into grain
    • Embryo: hormones
    • Aleurone: enzymes
    • Endosperm: food storage (starch)
  64. What is the first stage of malting?
  65. Where should the moisture content be increased to during steeping?
  66. What is the typical steeping temp range?
  67. How long does steeping take?
    2 days
  68. What is the second stage of malting?
  69. How long does germination last?
    4-6 days
  70. What is the typical temperature of germination?
  71. What is the purpose of germination?
    To break down the cell wall of the endosperm and make enzymes
  72. What is the third stage of malting?
  73. Why is the temperature gradually increased throughout the kilning process?
    Enzymes are more sensitive to heat when there are high moisture levels
  74. Why do ale malts develop more color and flavor than lager malts?
    Because they are treated at higher temps
  75. How are a range of specialty malts produced?
    By roasting
  76. What is the Latin name for hops?
    Humulus lupus
  77. What are the active brewing ingredients in hops?
    Resins and oils
  78. Where are the resins and oils found in hops?
    Lupulin gland
  79. What is the chemical name for the bitterness precursors?
  80. What happens to the alpha acids during boiling?
    They are converted to iso-alpha-acids
  81. How are hops classified?
    As bitter, aromatic, or dual purpose
  82. What is the difference in hops classification?
    Quality of aroma and level of resin
  83. In what forms can hops be used?
    Typically added as pellets, but can also be added as liquid CO2 extracts
  84. What is the liquid obtained in mashing called?
  85. What is the first stage and temp in starch breakdown
    Gelatinization which occurs at 65C for malt starch
  86. How many barrels of water are used for every barrel of beer?
    About 3.5 in a well-run brewery
  87. What does hard water contain?
    High level of Calcium
  88. What is an example of hard water used to brew beer?
    Burton (bass beer)
  89. What is an example of water with low levels of Calcium?
  90. What are alternate sources of sugar called in brewing?
  91. Which starches need to be cooked before use?
    Corn, rice, sorghum
  92. What kind of mills are used when using a lauter tun?
    Roller mills
  93. What kind of mills are used when a brewer is using a mash filter?
    Hammer mills
  94. What is Darcy's law?
    rate of wort flow = P * bed permeability * filtration area/ bed depth * viscosity
  95. Why is wort boiled?
    Sterilization, precipitation, volitilization, concentration, isomerization (of hop resins)
  96. What is the solid material produced in boiling called?
    hot break/trub
  97. How is hot break/trub removed?
    In a hop back or whirpool depending on the mode of hopping
  98. What is the solid material produced in cooling?
    Cold break
  99. What is the Latin name for ale yeast?
    Sacchromyces cerevisiae
  100. What is the Latin name for lager yeast?
    Saccharomyces pastorianus
  101. How can yeast age be assessed?
    By counting bud scars
  102. Why does yeast need some oxygen in brewery fermentations?
    Needs O to synthesize membrane lipids
  103. What is the customary pitching rate?
    1 million cell/mL/degree Plato
  104. How is yeast count usually performed?
    Using a hemocytometer
  105. How is the viability of yeast assessed?
    Methylene blue
  106. How are fermentations accelerated?
    By adding zinc
  107. What is high gravity brewing?
    • Producing beer from a higher strength wort than is needed for a given beer strength
    • dilution is the last stage in the process
  108. What is the noxious flavor generated during fermentation?
    Diacetyl, tastes like buttered popcorn
  109. How is diacetyl removed?
    By prolonged contact of yeast itself to mop up the flavor
  110. To what temp is beer chilled after fermentation and why?
    -1C to aid stabilization
  111. How can settling of solids in beer be enhanced?
    By adding isinglass (fish bladder)
  112. How is beer filtered?
    Either perlite or diatomaceous earth
  113. How are residual microbes removed?
    by pasteurization or membrane filtration
  114. What is the CO2 level increased to following pasteurization?
    Between 2-3 vol
  115. What are the filling rates in bottles?
    1200 bottles/min
  116. What are the filling rates in cans?
    2400 cans/min
  117. What was the initial language of U.S Brewmaster's association
  118. Who produced the most beer in 1950?
  119. Why did brewer's use nylon?
    To remove the tannins/polyphenols from beer
  120. What is liquor to a brewer?
    Salt compound of water used in the malting process
  121. What was plumage archer?
    A barley strain
  122. What was pure serendipity?
    The discovery of the malting process
  123. What is racking?
    Packaging beer
  124. What is the most profound antimicrobial activity in beer?
    Tannins, iso-alpha-acids, which suppress bacterial growth
  125. What is ice beer?
    Increasing the alcohol by freezing out water
  126. What is dry beer?
    Lager with a low proportion of sugar
  127. What is a widget?
    a piece of plastic put into a can that flexes causing bubbles of the nitrogen gas
  128. Who is George Hodgson?
    Made the 1st IPA
  129. How do we produce non-alcoholic beer?
    Most commonly, we limit fermentation or strip out the alcohol
  130. What is a hydrometer?
    measure the specific gravity of wort
  131. What does fermentation do to the specific gravity?
    It causes a drop
  132. What is the difference between high gravity brewing and sales strength brewing?
    High gravity brewing dilutes the beer before packaging
  133. What are the top 4 most consumed liquids in the U.S.?
    • 1. Carbonated drinks
    • 2. Coffee
    • 3. Bottle H2O
    • 4. Beer
  134. How many years has beer been drank?
    6-8 thousand years
  135. Where did beer first originate?
  136. How was beer originally made?
    Half-baked loaves of bread mixed with water and crumbled, then forced through the bottom of a woven basket into a clay jar which was airtight and sealed with a plug of nile mud
  137. Why was beer important to the Egyptians?
    It was currency and played a central role in religion
  138. How did beer change nomadic civilization?
    Made it static
  139. True or False: Beer originated in one country
    False, it probably originated in many place at once
  140. What did William of Malmesbury think of beer?
    He thought people who drank beer were less civilized than the Normans and the French who drank wine
  141. What was an ale-connor?
    Quality control for beer who would wear plastic pants and sit in the beer, if it stuck there was too much sugar
  142. What were the females that brewed beer usually called?
  143. What is Chicha?
    Beer made by women of the Quechua Indians who chew the grains to process them
  144. Why was it that lager-style beer actually began to be made?
    A prince banned summer brewing in 1533
  145. Who started the first commercial brewery?
    William Penn
  146. Who opened the first North American brewery in 1613?
    Adrian Block
  147. When did Prohibition end?
    January 17, 1920
  148. What happened to the number of drunk driving offenses in Chicago after prohibition?
    500% increase
  149. When did Prohibition end and what was the last dry state?
    Ended 1933, but the last dry state was Mississippi
  150. In 1945, how many breweries were thereĀ and how much did they produce?
    465 producing 190 thousand each by avg
  151. Who signed legislation making home-brewing legal?
    President Jimmy Carter
  152. Who was the first person to see yeast?
    Antonie can Leeuwenhoak in Delft
  153. Who was the first person to understand fermentation and spoilage?
    Louis Pasteur
  154. True or false: Gin did not require a license to produce
  155. What occurs to ales after fermentation?
    • 1. primed with extra sugars
    • 2. dry hopped with a handful of cones
    • 3. dosed with isinglass finings
    • 4. racked in casks
  156. What is a stout?
    • dark beer with burnt, smoky flavors due to roasted barley adjuncts
    • very bitter
    • uses nitrogen gas to smooth palate and give a rich, white, creamy foam
  157. What are the characteristics of Trappist beers?
    Dark, very bitter, acidic, fruity, up to 12.5%ABV
  158. What are the 5 things that affect the overall flavor of beer?
    malt, yeast, adjuncts, water, hops
  159. What is the flavor threshold?
    the concentration at which a substance becomes detectible, flavor is more potent at lower thresholds
  160. What causes sweetness in beers?
    residual sugars or added sugars (primings)
  161. What two chemicals add salty flavor to beer?
    Sodium and potassium
  162. What substance adds bitterness to beer?
    Iso-alpha-acids from hops
  163. What are the 3 things that help flavor stability?
    • 1. low oxygen
    • 2. low temperature
    • 3. sulfur dioxide
  164. Why do brewer's want to keep sulfur dioxide to a minimum?
    Over 10 mg/L has to be labeled
  165. What is beer a good source of?
    • Folate, silicon, and B12
    • Phosphorus. magnesium, and soluble fiber
  166. What is the main source of calories in beer?
  167. What lowers the apparent threshold for harmful alcohol effects?
    Underestimation (LYING)
  168. Where does most if not all of the cardiovascular benefit come from in beer?
    The alcohol
  169. What does the World Health Organization suggest should be the daily max intake of alcohol?
    60g/3 pints of a 5% ABV beer
  170. True or False: Alcohol is more addictive than caffeine
    False. Caffeine has actual addictive properties and causes withdrawal symptoms