bio test

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bio test
2014-12-16 03:06:24

bio final
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  1. Alleles
    alternate versions of genes they are retained through generations
  2. locus
    is a combination of alleles
  3. incomplete dominance
    is when heterozygotes have a phenotype in between the two parental alleles (white (C^w) +red (C^R)= pink)
  4. mendel's principal of segregation
    concludes that an organism has two alleles for each inherited characteristic
  5. genotype
    is the two alleles present in an individual for a gene
  6. phenotype
    is the physical result of having a particular genotype
  7. co-dominance
    is when two alleles affect a phenotype in distinguishable ways (AB blood type)
  8. multiple alleles
    is when more than two alleles affect a phenotype (ABO blood group)
  9. pleiotrpy
    is when a gene affects more than one phenotypic charcter (sickle cell anemia
  10. epistatsi
    is where a gene at one locus alters the phenotypic expression of a gene at a second locus (Albino)
  11. polygenic inheritance
    is when multiple genes are responsible for a phenotype (skin color)
  12. environmental impact
    is genetically identical individuals can show different phenotypes as a result of environmental facto (tan)
  13. dominant pedigree
    every affected child must have an affected parent, all non-affected individuals must be homozygous (affected=WW, Ww not affected =ww)
  14. recessive pedigree
    affected children may or may not have an affected parent, every affected individual must be homozygous recessive (affected=ff not affected ==FF, Ff)
  15. recombinant DNA
    is formed when scientists combine nucleotide sequences (pieces of DNA) from two different sources to form a single DNA molecule
  16. transgenic organism
    contain a gene from another organism, typically of another species
  17. plasmid
    small circular piece of DNa  can self replicate)
  18. Dna profiling
    is the analysis of dna fragemets to determine whether they come from a particular individual
  19. polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
    • is a method of amplifying a specific segment of a DNA molecule 
    • -relies upon a pair of primers
  20. gel electrophoresis
    separtes DNA molecules based on size
  21. short tandem repeats (STRs)
    • are genetic markers used in dna profiling 
    • -str analysis compares the lengths of STR sequences at specific regions of the genome (current standard is comparing 13 different STR sites)
  22. restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)
    when the DNA fragments produced by restriction enzyme digestion (cutting) of a DNA molecule are sorted by gel electrophoresis
  23. totipotent
    are capable of becoming any cell type or a complete embryo (plant cells)
  24. plurpotent
    are capbable of becoming several different cell types (embryo stem cell)
  25. multipotent
    are capable of becoming a specific type of cell (adult stem cell)
  26. somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)
    an egg cell has its nucleus remove and is fused with an adult cell containing a nucleus and , therefore, DNA
  27. commitment
    is a developmental process that results in cells whose roles are completely determined
  28. natural selection
    is a process in which organisms with certain inherited characteristics are more likely to survive and reproduce than are individuals with other characteristics. those individuals with traits best suited to the local environment generally leave a larger share of surviving, fertile offspring
  29. population
    a group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same time changing over generations
  30. evolutionary adaptation
    a population's increas in the frequency of traits suited to the environment
  31. evolution
    the genetic composition of a population changes over time
  32. radiometric dating
    a technique for determining the age of objects by measuring the decay of the radioactive elements they contain (most common method for dating fossils)
  33. homologous
    similar in position, structure, and evolutionary origin but not necessarily in function
  34. analogy
    characters of similar function and superficial structure that have not arisen from common ancestry
  35. gene pool
    is the sum total of alleles in a population is referred to as that population's
  36. microevolution
    a change of allele frequencies within a population over a relatively short period of time
  37. macroevolution
    is evolution that results in the formation of new species or other large groupings of living things
  38. mutation
    is any permanent alteration in an organism's DNA, and some mutations are heritable, meaning they can be passed from one generation
  39. gene flow
    is the movement of genes from one population to another
  40. genetic drift
    causes allele frequencies to change randomly
  41. sexual selectioin
    is a form of natural selection that can affect the frequency of alleles in a gene pool
  42. evolutionary fitness
    the relative reproductive success of individuals in a given environment at a given time
  43. reproductive barrier
    is anything that prevents individuals of closely related species from interbreeding
  44. allopatric speciation
    due to geographic isolation
  45. sympatric speciation
    without geographic isolation
  46. gradual model
    in which big changes (speciation) occur by the steady accumulation of many small changes
  47. punctatued equilibria
    in which there are: long periods of little change, equilibrium, punctuated by abrupt episodes of speciation
  48. taxonomy
    branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying species
  49. binomial nomenclature
    two name is used for each of earths species (Genus- species)
  50. systematics
    is concerned with establishing degrees of relatedness among both living and extinct species
  51. convergent evolution
    creates analogous structure that have similar form or function, but were not present in the last common ancestor of those groups
  52. ribozymes
    provides evidence for an ancient "RNA world" in which the only living things were simple RNA molecule that could bring about their own replication
  53. endosymbiosis
    one species living inside another host species, in which free-living bacteria came to reside inside a host cell, producing mitochondria and chloroplasts
  54. cambrian explosion
    the fossil record indicates a tremendous, rapid expansion in the number of animal forms
  55. bilateral symmetry
    exists where there is only one way to split the animal into equal halves
  56. arthropods
    the first land animals
  57. ecology
    is the study of interactions living things have with each other and with their environment
  58. population
    is all the members of a single species that live together in a specified geographical area
  59. community
    all the members of all species that live in a single area
  60. ecosystem
    a community and all the nonliving elements that interact with it
  61. biosphere
    is the interactive collection of all the earth's ecosystems
  62. population density
    the number of individuals of a species per unit of area or volume
  63. exponential growth
    the rapid growth that sometimes characterizes living population. j shaped growth curve
  64. logistic growth
    population that initially grow, but who's growth later levels out, sometimes referred to as the s-shaped growth curve
  65. environmental resistance
    the size of living populations is kept in check, all the forces of the environment that act to limit population growht
  66. carrying capacity
    denoted as K, is the maximum population density of a given species that can be sustained within a defined geographical area over an extended period of time
  67. k-selected
    be physically large, experience their environment as relatively stable, lavish a good deal of attention on relatively few offspring (example elephant)
  68. density dependent
    population's density goes up, factors that limit the populations growth- food supply, living space-assert themselves ever more strongly
  69. r-selected
    opportunist species tend to: be physically small, experience their environment as relatively unstable, and give little or no attention to the numerous offspring they produce
  70. survivorship curves
    • describe how soon species members tend to die within species life span
    • -late-loss (type 1) survive till old age
    • -constant loss (type ii)- tend to die off nearly constant rate throughout their lifespan
    • -early-loss species (type III) -tend to have high death rates early in life, with these rates leveling out thereafter
  71. ecological fottprint
    an estimate of the amount of land required to provide the raw materials an individual or population consumes
  72. ecological dominants
    the few species that are abundant in a given area
  73. keystone species
    a species whose absence from a community would bring about significant change in that community (usually top predators)
  74. interspecific interactions
    are interactions between species
  75. niche
    can be defined meaphorically as an organism's occupation
  76. interspecific competition
    arises in such instances, meaning competition between two or more species
  77. competitive exclusion principle
    states that when two populations compete for the same limited, vital resource, one always outcompetes the other and thus brings about the lattar's local exinction
  78. resource partiioning
    dividing up of scarce resources among species that have similar requirements
  79. mutualism
    both species benefit from an interaction
  80. predation
    one freestanding organism feeding on parts or all of a second organism
  81. parasitism
    a variety of predation in which the predator feeds on prey but does not kill it immediately and may not kill it ever (parasite, host)
  82. mimicry
    a phenomenon in which one species has evolved to assume the appearance of another
  83. batesian mimicry
    occurs when one species evolves to resemble a species that has superior protective capability
  84. mullerian mimicry
    several species that have protection against predators come to resemble each other
  85. herbivory
    the consumption of plant parts or algae by an animal
  86. succession
    • a series of replacements of community members at a given location until a relatively stable final state is reached
    • -primary succession
    • -secondary succession
    • climax community
  87. biological legacies
    living things, or products of living things, that survive a major ecological distrubance
  88. energy flow
    the passage of energy through the component of the ecosystem
  89. detritivore
    a class of consumer that feeds on the remains of dead organisms or cast-off material from living organisms
  90. decomposers
    a special kind of detritivore that breaks down dead or cast-off organic material into its inorganic components, which can then be recycled through an ecosystem
  91. biomass
    the amount or mass of living organic material in an ecosystem
  92. primary production
    the rate at which an ecosystem's producers convert solar energy to the chemical energy stored in biomass
  93. pyramid of production
    illustrates the cumulative loss of energy with each transfer in a food chain
  94. abiotic reservoir
    where a chemical accumulates or is stockpiled outside of living organisms