# chemistry.txt

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1. Here are all of my note cards from my Sophmore Chemistry class. I hope that you will find these helpful, useful, and a good way to study!
2. Boyle's Law
(+ equation)
The volume of a fixed mass of gas varies inversely with pressure at constant temperature

• PV=T
• P1V1=P2V2
3. Gay-Iussac's Law
(+ equation)
The pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant volume varies directly with the Kelvin temperature

• P/T=K
• P=KT
• P1/T1=P2/T2
4. Combined Gas Law
(+ equation)
The relationship between the pressure, volume, and temperature of a fixed amount of gas

• PV/T=K
• P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2
5. Dalton's Law of Partical Pressures
The total pressure of a mixutre of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases
Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules
7. Gay-Iussac's Law of Combining Volumes of Gases
At constant temperature and pressure, the volumes of gaseous reactants and products can be expressed as ratios of small whole numbers
8. Standard Molar Volume of a Gas
e volume occupied by one mole of gas at STP,22.414 10 L
9. Ideal Gas Law
The mathematical relationship of pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of moles of a gas
10. Ideal Gas Constant
The constant R,0.082 057 94 L*atm/mol*K
11. Graham's Law of Effusion
The rates of effusion of gases at the same temperature and pressure are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molar masses
12. Arrgenius Acid
A chemical compound that increases the concentration of hudrogen ions, H+, in aqueous solution
13. Arrhenius Base
A substance that increases the concentration of hydroxide ions, OH-, in aqueous solution
14. Binary Acid
An acid that contains only two different elements: hydrogen and one of the more electronegative elements
15. Oxyacid
And adic that is a coumpond of hydrogen, oxygen, and a third element, usually non-metal
16. Strong Acids
(list examples)
An acid that ionizes completely in aquesous solution

• Examples:
• Perchloric acid, HCIO4, hydrochloric acid, HC1, nitric acid, HNO3
17. Weak Acids
An acid that is a weak electrolyte
18. Strong Base
(list examples)
Strong electrolytes

• Examples:
• Potassium hydroxide (KOH), Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2, NaOH, RbOH, CsOH
19. Amphoteric
Any species that can react as either an acid of a base
20. Bronsted-lowry Acid
(list examples)
A molecule or ion that is a protein donor

• Examples:
• Hydrogen chloride
21. Bronsted-lowry Acid-base Reaction
The transfer of protons from one reactant (the acid) to another (the base)
22. Bronsted-lowry Base
(list examples)
A molecule or ion that is a proton acceptor

• Examples:
• Ammonia
23. Lewis Acid
(list examples)
An atom, ion, or molecule that accepts an electron pair to form a covalent bond

• Examples:
• Boron trifluoride
24. Lewis Base
(list examples)
An atom, ion, or molecule that donates an electron pair to form a covalent bond

• Examples:
• Anion
25. Lewis Acid-base Reaction
The formation of one or more covalent bonds between an electron-pair donor and an electron-pair acceptor
26. Conjugate Acid
The species that is formed when a Bronsted-Lowry base gains a proton
27. Conjugate Base
The species that remains after a Bronsted-Lowry acid has given up a proton
28. Neutralization
The reaction of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions to form water molecules
29. Salt
An ionic compound composed of a cation and the anion from an acid; an ionic compound composed of a cation from a base and an anion from an acid
30. Titration
The controlled addition and measurement of the amount of a solution of known concentration required to react completely with a measured amount of a solution of unknown concentration
31. Properties of Acids
• 1) Solutions have a sour taste
• 2) Acids change the color of acid-based indicators
• 3) Some acids react with active materials to release hydrogen gas
• 4) Acids react with bases to produce salts and water
• 5) Some acids conduct electric current
32. Properties of Bases
• 1) Aqueous solutions of bases taste bitter
• 2) Bases change the color of acid based indicators
• 3) Dilure aqueous solutions of bases feel slippery
• 4) Bases react with acids to produce salts and water
• 5) Bases conduct electric current
33. Transition Interval
(Methyl Red, Bromthymol Blue, Methyl Orange, Bromthymol Blue, Phenolphtalein, Phenol Red)
The pH range over which an indicator changes color
34. Heat
The energy transferred between samples of matter because of a difference in their temperature
35. Temperature
A measure of the avereage kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter
36. Kinetic Energy
The energy a body has by virtue of its motion
37. Enthalphy Change
The amount of energy absorbed or lost by a system during a process at constant pressure
38. Thermochemistry
The study of the changes in heat energy that accompany chemical reactions and physical changes
39. Specific Heat
The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance by one Celsius degree (1 oC) or one kelvin (1K)
40. Entropy
A measure of the degree of randomness of the particles, such as molecules, in a system
41. Free Energy
The combined enthalphentropy function of a system
42. Activated Complex
A transitional structire that results from an effective collision and that persists while old bonds are breaking and the new bonds are forming
43. Activation Energy
The minimum energy required to transform the reactants into an activated complex
44. Collision Theory
The set of assumptions explaining how chemical reactions take place and why rates of reaction alter
45. Reaction Mechanism
The step-by-step sequence of reactions by which the overall chemical change occurs
46. Endothermic
Referring to a chemical reaction that absorbs heat
47. Exothermic
Referring to a chemical reaction that releases heat
48. Catalyst
A substance that changes the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being permanently consumed
49. Reaction Rate
The change in concentration of reactants per unit time as a reaction proceeds
50. Rate-Influencing Factors
• 1) Nature of reactants
• 2) Surface area
• 3) Temperature
• 4) Concentration
• 5) Presence of Catalysts
51. Nuclear-Binding Energy
The energy released when a nucleus is formed from nucelons
52. Nucleon
A proton or neutron
53. Nuclide
The general term for any isotope of any element, another term for an atom that is identified by the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus
54. Transmutation
A change in the identity of a nucleus as a result of a change in the number of its protons
55. Nuclear Reaction
A reaction that affects the nucleus of an atom
56. Alpha Particle
Two protons and two neutrons bound together and emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay
57. Beta Particle
An electron emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay
58. Gamma Ray
A high-energy electromagnetic wave emitted from a nucleus as it changes from an excited energy state to a ground energy state
59. Half-life
The time required for half of the atoms of a radioactive nuclide to decay
The particles or electromagnetic radiation emitted from the nucleus during radioactive decay
61. Positron
A particle that has the same mass as an electron but has a positive charge and is emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay
The spontaneous disintegration of a nucleus into a slightly lighter and more stable nucleus, accompanied by emission of particles and/or electromagnetic radiation
63. REM
The quantity of ionizing radiation that does as much damage to human tissues as is done by 1 roentgen of high voltage X rays
64. Roentgen
A unit used to measure nuclear radiation; equal to the amount of radiation that produces 2 x 109 ion pairs when it masses through 1 cm3 of dry air
A radioactive atom that is incorporated into a substance so that movement of the substance can be followed by a radiation detector
The process by which the approximate age of an object is determined based on the amount of certain radioactive nuclides present
67. Nuclear Fission
A process in which a very heavy nucleus splits into more-stable nuclei of intermediate mass
68. Nuclear Fusion
The combining of light-mass nuclei to form a heavier, more stable nucleus
69. Moderator
A material used to slow down the fast neutrons produced by fission
70. Daughter Nuclide
A nuclide produced by the decay of a parent nuclide
71. Parent Nuclide
The heaviest nuclide of each decay series
72. Charles' Law
(+ equation)
The volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure varies directly with the Kelving temperature K=273.15+ oC

• V=KT
• V/T=K
• V1/T1=V2/T2
73. Absolute Zero
The temperature -273.15o C, given a value of zero in the Kelvin scale
74. Pressure
The forces per unit area on a surface
75. Standard Temperature and Pressure
The agreed-upon standard conditions of exactly 1 atm pressure and 0o C
76. Kinetic-molecular Theory
A theory based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion
77. Ideal Gas
An imaginary gas that perfectly fits all of the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory
78. Diffusion
Spontaneous mixing of the particles of two substances caused by their random motion
79. Effusion
A process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening
80. Limiting Reactant
The reactant that limits the amounts of the other reactants that can combine - and the amount of product that can form - in a chemical reaction
81. Theoretical Yield
The maximum amount of product that can be produced from a given amount of reactant
82. Mole Ratio
A conversion factor that relates the amounts in moles of any two substances involved in a chemical reaction
83. Percent Yield
(+ equation)
The ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield, multiplied by 100

Percent Yield = (actual yield/theoretical yield)*100
84. Composition Stoichiometry
Calculations involving the mass relationships of elements in compounds
85. Reaction Stoichiometry
Calculations involving the mass relationships between reactants and products in a chemical reaction
86. There you go!
Hope anyone who uses these finds that they are useful!
Have fun in Chemistry!

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 Author: Anonymous ID: 29173 Filename: chemistry.txt Updated: 2010-08-07 09:03:19 Tags: chemistry school study science Folders: Description: A crap load of Chemistry note cards to help you review for a test, final, or just for fun. 84 cards in total! Show Answers:

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