Muscles of the Proximal Forelimb

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Anonymous
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291759
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Muscles of the Proximal Forelimb
Updated:
2014-12-16 12:19:50
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Muscles Forelimb
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Vet Med - Module 7
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  1. What components make up the elbow joint?
    Trochlea of the humerus, head of the radius and trochlear notch of the ulna
  2. What are the palpable landmarks of the elbow joint?
    Medial and lateral epicondyles and the olecranon
  3. What provides the elbow joint with stability?
    Collateral ligaments and anneal process of the ulna (which becomes engaged within the olecranon/ulnar fossa of the humerus)
  4. What movement is the elbow joint restricted to?
    Flexion and extension
  5. When can dissolution of the elbow joint occur?  Why is this rare?
    Dislocation of the elbow joint is very rare due to the strong support provided to this joint.  Dislocation can only occur when the joint is in hyper flexion.
  6. How do you rearticulate a dislocated elbow joint?
    This can only be done if you hyperflex the joint, realign it and extend it. The joint then needs to be immobilised for long enough to allow the collateral ligaments to heal.  The joint must be immobilised in extension to allow the anconeal process to provide stability while the ligaments heal.
  7. What types of developmental conditions can contribute to elbow dysplasia?
    • Osteochondrosis
    • Ununited anconeal process
    • Fragmented medial coronoid process
    • Elbow incongruity (when the articular surfaces do not match nicely)
  8. What is 'capped elbow'?
    This is when the subcutaneous bursa at the point of the elbow becomes swollen, usually due to animals lying on hard surfaces
  9. What is the difference between extrinsic and intrinsic muscles?
    Extrinsic muscles have their origin on the axial skeleton and insertion on the appendicular skeleton.  Whereas intrinsic muscles have their origin and insertion within the appendicular skeleton.
  10. List the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the forelimb
    • Extrinsic = brachiocephalicus, latissimus dorsi, pectorals, trapezius, serratus ventralis
    • Intrinsic = biceps brachii, triceps brachii, brachialis, deltoideus, teres major
  11. What is the origin and insertion of Brachiocephalicus?
    • O = cervical vertebrae and skull
    • I = humerus
  12. Brachiocephalicus is located on the ... aspect of the limb?
    cranial
  13. What are the functions of Brachiocephalicus?
    Forelimb protractor and shoulder extensor
  14. Does brachiocephalicus get its nerve supply from the brachial plexus?
    No
  15. What is the origin and insertion of Biceps Brachii?
    • O = supraglenoid tubercle
    • I = proximal radius
  16. Biceps brachii is located on the ... aspect of the limb?
    cranio-medial
  17. What are the functions of biceps brachii?
    Shoulder extensor/fixer and elbow flexor
  18. What is the nerve supply to Biceps brachii?
    Musculocutaneous nerve
  19. What structure surrounds and protects the biceps brachii tendon of origin?
    The bicipital bursa
  20. Where do the bicipital bursa and biceps brachii tendon run through?  What holds them in place?
    The intertubercal groove of the humerus.  They are held in place by transverse ligaments.
  21. What additional point of attachment for the biceps brachii muscle is present in the horse?
    The lacertus fibrosis
  22. Where does lacertus fibrosis insert and what is its function?
    Inserts onto the 3rd metacarpal bone.  It is a carpal extensor.
  23. What is the origin and insertion of the Brachialis muscle?
    • O = humerus
    • I = radius
  24. Brachialis is located on the ... aspect of the limb?
    lateral
  25. What is the function of Brachialis?
    Elbow flexor
  26. What is the nerve supply of Brachialis?
    Musculocutaneous nerve
  27. What is the origin and insertion of Latissimus dorsi?
    • O = thoracic vertebrae
    • I = humerus
  28. Latissimus dorsi is located on the ... aspect of the limb?
    caudal
  29. What are the functions of latissimus dorsi?
    Shoulder flexor and forelimb retractor
  30. What is the nerve supply of Latissimus dorsi?
    Brachial plexus
  31. What is the origin and insertion of Deltoideus?
    • O = spine of scapula
    • I = lateral aspect of humerus
  32. Deltoideus is located on the ... aspect of the limb?
    caudo-lateral
  33. What is the function of Deltoideus?
    Shoulder flexor
  34. What is the nerve supply to Deltoideus?
    Axillary nerve
  35. What is the origin and insertion of Teres Major?
    • O = caudal border of scapula
    • I = medial humerus
  36. Teres major is located on the ... aspect of the limb?
    caudo-medial
  37. What is the function of Teres Major?
    Shoulder flexor
  38. What is the nerve supply to Teres Major?
    Axillary nerve
  39. What is the origin and insertion of Triceps brachii?
    • O = caudal border of scapula, shaft of humerus
    • I = olecranon process of ulna
  40. Triceps brachii is located on the ... aspect of the limb?
    caudal
  41. What are the functions of Triceps brachii?
    Shoulder flexor and elbow extensor
  42. What is the nerve supply to Triceps brachii?
    Radial nerve

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