Social Research Final

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  1. Verstehen Study
    difference of study when people and objects
  2. Direct/Sustained Interaction
    allows you to develop empathy
  3. Naturalistic Inquiry
    in their natural habitat
  4. Qualitative Analysis
    categories that can be used to make sense of what we are seeing
  5. Grounded Theory
    • inducing
    • observations --> generate a theoretical interpretation
  6. Participatory Action Research
    to get people to participate in research
  7. Current Biography
    describing your life

    ex: grad student and horses
  8. Remote Biography
    writing about your memories

    ex: barbershop when you were younger
  9. Engagement Biography
    • have to interested
    • how interested are you
  10. Substantive Appropriateness
    does the field we are studying provide us with enough data
  11. Access in data sites
    able to get into

    ex: KKK
  12. Personal Danger with data sites
    is your safety at risk

    ex: gang project
  13. Potential harm to participants
    does the study hurt the participants

    ex: underage drinking + death
  14. Complete Participant
    don't tell anybody you're doing a study

    ex: person working their way up in a clan, undercover
  15. Participant-as-observer
    we let them know that we doing research while actively participating
  16. Observer-as-participant
    tell them youre conducting research but all you do is observe, not participating
  17. Complete Observer
    don't tell anyone that you are participating, observing
  18. Ways to prepare for the field
    • reflexivity (having effect on something else)
    • literature review
    • contacts with initial informants
  19. Purposive Sampling
    • use judgment
    • selecting on purpose
  20. Snowball Sampling
    initial cause leads to something else
  21. Data Logging
    • content
    • timing (asap)
    • amount (# of data + time)- should be equal amounts
  22. Taxonomies and Interpretations
    system of categories

    ex: baseball players w/ routines
  23. Fear of discourse
    telling someone about your research
  24. Loathing and desire to withdraw
    exerting less effort --> drop out
  25. Becoming lost in the field
    step-out and recapture our role
  26. Going native
    • abandoning your research
    • believing in what you were doing research about
  27. Advantages of studying culture artifacts
    • cheap
    • efficient
    • unique access
    • nonintrusive
  28. General sources of culture artifacts
    • public documents + official records (ex: social correlations of suicide, sex ratios at birth)
    • private documents (suicide notes)
    • imagery in cultural artifacts (ex: gender roles+facial prominence, disappearance of puritanism)--> finding out things from cues in history's past
  29. Basic features in content analysis
    • focus on recorded communications
    • conversion of qualitative to quantitative
    • theory generation/theory testing (working from observations--> theory--> testing)
  30. Units of analysis
    Units of observations
    analysis: what is being compared/bigger theme

    observation: what we are specifically looking for

    • ex: Are American artists more likely to prefer landscape themes in their paintings than European artists
    • analysis: artists
    • observation: paintings
  31. Manifest content
    Latent Content
    • manifest: surface content, what it looks like
    • latent: real meaning behind it

    • ex: dreaming of eating- manifest
    •       hungry - latent
  32. Recording units
    • words (finding key words)
    • acts
    • themes (valedictorian speeches)
    • characters
  33. Inter-coder reliability
    • develop protocol and apply
    • use different people to measure reliability
  34. Common limitations
    • factual errors + biases
    • recording inadequacies
    • selective survival (missing/incomplete)
    • selective deposit (physical traces are established)
    • incompleteness
  35. Composite measures
    multi-information + combining (ex: IQs --> multiple measurements to give one score)

    Ordinality (rank order, pos + neg polls)
  36. Item selection in index construction
    • face validity (covering concept it measures)
    • unidimensionality (voting pattern and voting preference)
    • variance
    • internal consistency
  37. Scoring indexes
    • polarity (pos or neg)
    • missing values: exclude cases, impute
  38. Likert scaling
    • mixing polarity avoids any biases
    • ex:
    • 1) I am usually excited to return to campus
    • S.A   A    N   D   S.D
    • 5      4    3    2    1
    • 2) I often think I learn more at other univers.
    • S.A       A      N      D      S.D
    • 1          2      3      4        5
  39. Bogardus social distance scale
    empirically measure people's willingness to participate in social contacts of varying degrees of closeness with members of diverse social groups

    usually consists on 10 questions
  40. Guttman scaling
    items are arranged in an order so that an individual who agrees with a particular item also agrees with items of lower rank-order.

    For example, a series of items could be (1) "I am willing to be near ice cream"; (2) "I am willing to smell ice cream"; (3) "I am willing to eat ice cream"; and (4) "I love to eat ice cream". Agreement with any one item implies agreement with the lower-order items
  41. Thurstone scaling
    • intensities among different intervals
    • judge who rates the intensity

    ex: discrimination, asks 10 questions, rank which (1-10) are most discriminate
  42. Typologies
    measures 1 or more dimensions

    ex: aptitude and gpa
  43. Pearson correlation
    • are 2 variables associated
    • sign=direction
    • strength
    • linear pattern
  44. Bivariate regression
    • determined by 2 parameters (slope and y-intercept)
    • y=a+bx
    • a= y intercept
    • b= slope
  45. R square
    • how much of the variation is between explained and unexplained
    • FIT
Card Set:
Social Research Final
2014-12-16 20:03:31
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