Card Set Information
What does the term "antimicrobials" apply to?
What are actinomycetes?
Bacteria that resemble fungi due to their filamentous projections
85% of antibiotics are made from these
What is penecillin made from?
penicillium, a fungus
What is prophylaxis?
Prevention of post-operative wound infection
What are endogenous and exogenous bacteria?
Endogenous - microbe comes from the patients own bacteria
Exogenous - microbe comes from outside the patient
What is the infection cycle?
Pathogen -> Means of transmission -> Susceptible host -> SSI
What are 2 common ways to identify pathogens?
Culture and Sensitivity
What is a culture and sensitivity test?
grow microbes in culture to determine the infecting pathogen
expose microbes to various antibiotics to determine which will best inhibit growth
What is an I&D?
Incision and Drainage
What is morphology?
The study of shapes of bacteria
What is selective toxicity?
Medication must act against infecting agent without harming host cells
What are prokaryotes?
Single celled organisms
Has a "pre-nucleus"
What are eukaryotes?
Has a true nucleus
What is antibiotic resistance?
The ability of some strains to prevent or overcome the activity of an antimicrobial agent
What are the 3 ways microbes can havce antibiotic resistance?
Manufacture enzymes that prevent the antibiotic from entering the cell
Cell membrane may be altered to prevent entry of the antibiotic
Target areas may be altered so the agent is no longer effective
What are aminoglycosides?
Antibiotics that are derived from various strains of Actinomyces
Interfere with protien synthesis
Mostly used against Gram-negative bacteria
Short term treatment of serious infections
Poorly absorbed orally
Can cause ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity
What are the 5 major categories of antibiotics?
What is ototoxicity?
Hearing and balance damage
What is nephrotoxicity?
Death of kidney cells/nephrons
What drugs are in the Aminoglycoside category?
What are cephlasporins?
Broad-spectrum antibiotics derived from the fungus Cephalosporium acremonium
Bacteriacidal, targets cell wall synthesis
Have 4 generations
Used for prophylaxis
Given orally, intramuscularly, or intravenously
How is gentamycin available?
cream or ointmet
ophthalmic solution and ointment
solution for injection
How is streptomycin available?
How is neomycin available?
What do 1st generation cephlasporins do?
Active against many gram positive and some gram negative bacteria
What do 2nd generation cephlasporins do?
Active against many gram negative, but few gram positive
What do 3rd generation cephlasporins do?
Wider range of effectiveness on gram-negative than 2nd generation, but very limited on gram positive
What do 4th generation cephlasporins do?
Work on gram positive and negative organisms
What are macrolides?
Broad-spectrum antibiotics that attack protien synthesis in the ribosomes
Includes the erythromycins
Bactericidal for several gram positive agents, including Legionella
Derived from Streptococcus erythreus
What are penicillins?
Derived from penicillium
Bactericidal on gram positive and negative
Blocks enzymes so cell walls rupture
What is penicillinase?
An enzyme that breaks down penicillin
What are the natural penicillins?
penicillin G (Pentids, Pfizerpen)
benzathine penicillin G (Bicillin L-A, Permapen)
penicillin G (Beepen-VK, Betapen-VK)
What are the Penicillinase-Resistant penicillins?
dicloxacillin (Dycill, Pathocil)
nafcillin (Nafcil, Unipen)
What are the Aminopenicillins (not penicillinase resistant)?
amoxicillin (Amoxil, Polymox)
What are the broad spectrum penicillins?
What are tetracyclines?
First broad spectrum antibiotics
Originally obtained from cultures of Streptomyces
Bacteriostatic against Gram positive and negative
Interferes with protien synthesis
Used primarily to treat acne and Rickettes
What are the tetracyclines?
tetracycline hydrachloride (Achromycin-V, Sumycin)
chlortetracycline hydrochloride (Aureomycin)
What are oxazolidinones?
New class of synthetic antibiotics
Treats MRSA, VRE and Streptococci
Intravenously or orally
What are Quinolones?
Antibiotics that inhibit DNA-gyrase
Orally or intravenously
UTI's or systemic infections
What are Sulfonamides?
Not really antibiotics - they're antimicrobials
Commonly known as sulfa drugs
UTI's, severe burns, superficial eye infections
Orally, topically, ocassionally intravenously
What is aztreonam (Azactam)?
First drug of a new class of antibiotics called monobactams
What is systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)?
2 or more of the following:
Temperature greater than 36 - 38c
Heartrate greater than 90 bpm
3 - 17% mortality rate
What is sepsis?
SIRS with the addition of an infection site confirmed by a culture
Mortality rate 16%
What is Severe sepsis?
Sepsis plus organ dysfunction and tissure hypoperfusion or hypotension
Mortality rate 20%
What is Septic shock?
Hypotension induced by sepsis despite fluid bolus or organ and tissue hypoperfusion
Mortality rate 46%
What are the 5 ways antibiotics work?
Inhibit cell wall synthesis
impede protien synthesis
alter bacterial cell wall function
disrupt cell metabolism
interfere with DNA/RNA synthesis