Anthro 100

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Anthro 100
2014-12-16 22:22:57
anthro 100

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  1. culture
    the knowledge that is learned, shared, and used by people to interpret experience and generate behavior
  2. ethnography
    the task of discovering and describing a particular culture
  3. explicit culture
    the culture that people can talk about and of which they are aware
  4. tacit culture
    the shared knowledge of which people usually are unaware and do not communicate verbally
  5. participant observation
    active participation while observing a culture; subjective and objective observations
  6. emic
    insider's perspective
  7. etic
    outsider's perspective
  8. informant
    someone within a culture to give insight to an outsider
  9. naive realism
    the notion that reality is much the same for all people everywhere
  10. ethnocentrism
    a mixture of belief and feeling that one's own way of life is desirable and actually superior to others'
  11. culture shock
    a form of anxiety that results from an inability to predict the behavior of others or to act appropriately in cross-cultural situations
  12. culture stress
    the small things that are bothersome that are different from your own culture
  13. cultural behavior
    behavior stemming from a certain culture
  14. cultural knowledge
    all the knowledge gained by living in a particular culture
  15. applied anthropology
    any use of anthropological knowledge to influence social interaction, to maintain or change social institutions, or to direct the course of cultural change
  16. cultural artifacts
    the things people shape or make from natural resources
  17. fieldwork
    usually at least a year, traveling to the culture that you are studying and immerse yourself
  18. rapport
    a close relationship built during fieldwork with the natives
  19. symbol
    anything that humans can sense that is given an arbitrary relationship to its referent
  20. sex
    physical/genetic difference between males and females
  21. gender
    performance of masculinity or femininity
  22. language
    the system of cultural knowledge used to generate and interpret speech
  23. class
    a system of cultural knowledge used to generate and interpret speech
  24. race
    cultural paradox; no genetics for race, but inequalities exist
  25. ethnicity
    heritage, ethnic background
  26. colonialism
    the control or governing influence of a nation over a dependent country, territory, or people
  27. agency
    the ability to influence the outcome of events
  28. rhetoric
    the study of the effective use of language
  29. discourse
    communication of thought by words; talk; conversation
  30. magic
    strategies people use to control supernatural power to achieve particular results
  31. ritual
    an established or prescribed procedure for a religious or other rite
  32. taboo
    a prohibition or interdiction of anything; exclusion from use or practice
  33. fetish
    an object regarded with awe as being the embodiment or habitation of a potent spirit or as having magical potency
  34. endogamy
    marriage within a designated social unit
  35. exogamy
    marriage outside any designated group
  36. kinship
    the complex system of social relationships based on marriage (affinity) and birth (consanguinity)
  37. patrilineality
    a rule of descent relating consanguine kin on the basis of descent through males only
  38. matrilineality
    a rule of descent relating a person to a group of consanguine kin on the basis of descent through females only
  39. bride price
    usually a standard sum of money. given to the parents of the bride by the grooms father and his line. viewed as a compensation for the loss of the bride's services and her shift in her loyalty
  40. fictive kin
    forms of kinship or social ties that are based on neither consanguinal (blood ties) nor affinal (by marriage) in contrast to true kinship ties
  41. consanguine
    the principle of relationship linking individuals by shared ancestry (blood)
  42. affine
    a fundamental principle of relationship linking kin through marriage
  43. patrilocality
    moving in with the man's family
  44. multilocality/oxorilocality
    operating at a local level in more than one region
  45. polygamy
    a marriage form in which a person has two or more spouses at one time
  46. polygyny
    a form of polygamy in which a man is married to two or more women at the same time
  47. polyandry
    a form of polygamy in which a woman has two or more husbands at one time
  48. cultural relativism
    the principle that an individual human's belief and activities should be understood by others in terms of that individual's own culture
  49. redistribution
    the transfer of goods and services between a group of people and a central collecting service based on role obligation
  50. subsistence
    strategies used by groups of people in their environment for material necessities. ex. hunting and gathering, agriculture, and horticulture
  51. reciprocity
    the transfer of goods and services between two people or groups based on their role obligations
  52. the kula
    a system of reciprocal gift giving off the islands of New Guinea
  53. commodity chain
    a process used by firms to gather resources, transform them into goods or commodities, and finally, distribute them to consumers
  54. prestige
    reputation or influence arising from success achievement, rank, or other favorable attributes
  55. structural inequality
    a condition where one category of people are attributed an unequal status in relation to other categories of people
  56. possession
    a ghost possessing a body
  57. glossolalia
    the fluid vocalizing of speech-like syllables that lack any readily comprehended meaning, in some cases as part of religious practice
  58. sustainability
    how biological systems remain diverse and productive
  59. swidden/ slash and burn
    an agriculture technique that involves the cutting and burning of plants in forests to create fields
  60. cultural ecology
    the study of human adaptions to social and physical environments
  61. migration
    the movement by people from one place to another with the intention of settling temporarily or permanently in the new location
  62. globalization
    the process that promotes economic, political, and other cultural connections among people living all over the world
  63. cultural tourism
    the subset of tourism concerned with a country or region's culture
  64. authenticity
    whether or not the culture a society represents is authentic or notw
  65. warfare
    the conduct of conflict between opponents