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What is contrast media?
- Substance injected into the circulatory system or a body cavity
- Shows up x-rays
What is radiopaque?
Can be seen on an x-ray
What is radiotransparent?
Cannot be seen on an x-ray
What are dyes?
- Solutions that color or mark tissues for identification
- Used for skin incisions, dileneate normal tissue planes
- Applied topically, injected into the blood stream or a body cavity
What are staining agents?
- Chemicals that react differently to abnormal cells than normal cells.
- Used often in cervix procedures
What is omnipaque?
- Iohexol - water-soluable iodine based radiographic contrast medium
- 45% iodine
- Contraindicated in patients with iodine hypersensitivities
What strengths does omnipaque come in?
- Comes in glass vials 10mL - 250mL
What procedures is omnipaque commonly used for?
What happens to omnipaque in the body?
- Absorbed from site of administratin into the blood stream
- Undergoes little or no metabolism
- Excreted by the kidneys virutally unchanged
What is hypaque?
- Diatrizoate meglumine 30% and 60%, diatrizoate sodium 25% and 50%
- Watersoluable radiopaque contrast media
- Supplied in glass vials 50mL and 100mL
- Can not be used in patients with iodine hypersensitivity
- Cannot be used interthecally
What procedures is hypaque used for?
- Choloangiograms - open or laproscopic - to determine the presence of stones in the common bile duct
- Can also be inserted directly into the bladder
How is hypaque prepared on the sterile field?
Often diluted with equal parts saline solution
What is visipaque?
- Iodixanol - water soluable radiopaque contrast media
- Available in concentrations of 270 and 320mg of organically bound iodine per mL
- Absorbed into the bloodstream, leaves kidneys nearly unchanged
What is visipaque used for?
- peripheral, visceral and cerebral arteriography
- computerized tomography
- excretory urography
- peripheral venography
What is Isovue?
- Iopamidol - water soluable media for intravascular, intrathecal and body cavity administration for radiographic procedeures
- Rapidly absorbed into the blood stream and excreted by the kidneys
- Comes in concentrations of 150, 200, 300 and 370mg/mL
What is Isovue used for?
- Lumbar and thoracocervical myelography
- Cerebral angiography
What are the 4 most common dyes used in surgery?
- Methylene blue
- Indigo carmine
- Gentian violet
What is methylene blue used for?
- Cystoscopy - detect bladder injury
- Tubal dye studies - verify patency of uterine tubes
- Bladder surgery or exploration: Detect bladder injury
What is Isosulfan Blue (Lymphazurin) used for?
- Aqueous solution for the dilineatoin of lymphatic vessels
- Supplied in 5mL single dose vials
- Injected by surgeon before skin prep 5 minutes before first incision
What is Indigo Carmine?
- Blue dye given intravenously to color urine for verification of bladder integrity or kidney function.
- 40mg/5mL in water.
- Excreted by the kidneys
- 5mL glass ampules
What is gentian violet?
- Purple dye most frequently used to mark incision lines
- Comes in sterile marking pens
- Also works as an antifungal - fights thrush and yeast infections
What are staining agents?
Help identify abnormal tissue for biopsy or excision
What is Lugol's solution?
- Strong iodine mixture used to perform Schiller's test on cervical tissue
- Abnormal cells won't take up the dye, leaving them visibile to the eye.
What is Acetic Acid?
- Used to help identify areas of cervical dysplasia
- May be used as a staining agent when laser is used to excise dysplasia