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Four methods of Delivery
Carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of notes
Written out word for word and read to the audience
A speech that is memorized word for word
Speech delivered with no immediate preparation
Elements of an effective nonverbal delivery
which positions should be avoided
advantages of using visual aids
- Enhances credibility
- Increases speaker's persuasiveness
- Help combat Public speaking anxiety
- increases audience interest
types of visual aids
increase interest and clarity
provide effective alternative to objects
substitute for objects and models
substitute for photographs
- clarify and simplify statistics
- line- trend
- pie- distribution
- bar- comparison
help summarize large blocks of information
Help audience visualize
guidelines for using visual aids
- prepare in advance
- keep simple
- ensure visual aid is large enough
- use simple fonts
- use limited number of fonts
- use color effectively
8 rules of designing and using multimedia presentations
- minimize verbiage
- increase legibility
- avoid excessive artwork
- create a focal point
- audience variety to layout
- determine the number of slides
- use navigational slides
- avoid blocking slides
three challenges of persuasive speaking
- controversial topics
- active listeners
- different audiences
holding hands in front of your groin. Like you need to use the bathroom
hands off all weird like you're holding guns
hands on your hips
constantly moving hands
Goal of a Persuasive Speech
influence the attitudes, beliefs, and or behaviors of audience members
What we use to help convince audience
- convincing arugments
- Appropriate Organizational Pattern
We have to write our persuasive goals as propositions, as this helps us organise our speech and select convincing arguments to aid in our persuasive goals.
Proposition of Fact
- A proposition about the truth or falsity of an assertion.
- "Next year the oakland A's will win the world series."
Proposition of Value
A proposition of value is a proposition about the worth, rightness, or morality of an idea or action
Proposition of policy
- A proposition of policy is a proposition about whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken
- passive agreement
- immediate action
three issues addressed in the Proposition policy
need plan practicality
group of people we want to persuade the most
different types of audiences
three reasons why audience may be neutral
- Uninformed: They don't know enough about the topic. Include more basic information and arguments.
- Impartial: Know the basics, but still don't have an opinion for some reason. Therefore, give more elaborate or secondary arguments.
- Apathetic: Unconcerned, uninterested, or indifferent to your topic. Therefore, make your speech more personalised and personally relevant to them so that they care more
Audience that is in favor
Have favorable attitudes to your topic. Your goal here is to mobilise them into action somehow.
Will the Economy be better or worse next year?
Question of Fact
Is capital punishment ethical or unethical?
Question of Value
What should be done to improve the quality of life of UHM students?
Question of Policy
3 methods of persuasion
- building credibility
- using evidence and reasoning
- appealing to emotions
2 dimensions of building credibility
- (1) Competence: Influenced by intelligence, expertise, and knowledge on the topic.
- (2) Character: Influenced by sincerity, trustworthiness, and concern for the audience.
Aristotle's name for credibility
three types of credibility
- (1) Initial: judgments made before you speak (based off attire, appearance, etc).
- (2) Derived: judgments made while you present your arguments and evidence.
- (3) Terminal: judgments made as your wrap up your speech.
- Credibility therefore, is dynamic, you can be credible at one moment then no longer be credible in the next.
How to enhance Credibility
- Explain your competence through your credibility statement
- Establish common ground with your audience to help with character
- Speak expressively and with conviction: make your audience believe in you and show your passion in your topic.
Aristotle's name for using logical appeals and using evidence
Drawing Conclusions based on evidence
4 types of Reasoning
- Reason from specific instances
- Reasoning from a general principle
- Casual reasoning
- Analogical Reasoning
Reasoning from specific instances: Come to a conclusion from particular facts to a general conclusion
Reasoning from principle: Come to a specific conclusion based on a general principle.
Causal reasoning: Established a relationship between causes and effects.
Analogical reasoning: Comparing two similar cases and inferring that what is true for the first is also true for the second.
Aristotle's name for emotional appeal
appeals intended for audience to feel emtion
Four ways to help generate pathos
- Generate emotional appeal
- Use emotional language
- Develop vivid examples
- Speak with sincerity and conviction
A fallacy in which a speaker jumps to a general conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence.
A fallacy in which a speaker mistakenly assumes that because of one event follows another, the first event is the cause of the second
- An analogy in which the two cases being compared are not essentially alike
- e.g. Because newspapers are black and white, and penguins are black and white. Penguins are newspapers.
A fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion.
A fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the issue in dispute.
A fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist.
A fallacy which assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable.
A fallacy which assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented.
5 steps of monroe's motivated sequence pattern
- Attention Step
- Need step
- satisfaction step
- visualization step
- action step
- 1.Gain Attention-purpose
- 2.Justify Topic
- 3.Establish credibility
- 4.Preview Main Ideas
- 5.Use Connective
Need step (highlight problem)
- 1.State the specific problem
- 2.Illustrate the problem
- 3.Reinforce the need
- 4.Point to audience relevance
Satisfaction step (provide solution and develop plan)
- 1.Provide support for your proposal
- 2.Address Objections
- 3.Point to audience relevance
Visualization Step (Intensify desire positive method or negative method)
- 1.Use vivid language
- 2.Emphasis benefits or drawbacks
Action Step (call to action)
- 1.State what and how
- 2. Emphasize need
- 3. Call to action
Persuasion is not coercion, manipulation, peer pressure, propaganda, etc. Persuasion is free will and is generally a positive thing.
Elaboration Likelihood Model
Variations in the nature of persuasion depend on the likelihood that receivers will engage in information about elaboration which exists on a continuum (thinking about).
Central Route Processing
- part of ELM
- high amounts of elaboration
- "high thinking" Judgement arguments long lasting
Peripheral Route Processing
- Part of ELM
- Mindless processing of the source's characteristics.
Social Judgement Theory
On a continuum of positions on any given topic, people have a preferred position (Anchor)
Social Judgement theory continuum
- latitude of acceptance
- latitude of noncommittment
- latitude of rejection
Perceive something in the attitude of rejection as further away from the anchor than it really is = REJECTION
Judge things in latitude of acceptance to be closer than they really are to our anchor = PERSUASION
Extended parallel process model
Fear appeals are most effective when a person cares about an issue and perceive that he or she can deal with the situation.
two components of fear appeal
Perceived threat and Perceived efficacy
- effectively scare people without it being overwhelming
- Susceptibility- Can this happen to me?
- Severity-Is this an issue worth being frightened over?
two primary ways people deal with fear appeals
- Danger control = People try to reduce the dangerYou want people to do this.They need to both be scared (high threat) and believe they can remove the threat (high efficacy)
- Fear control = People try to calm themselves and stop being scaredYou don't want people to do this. Here there's high threat but low efficacy
Purpose of a commemorative speech
- Purpose: Appreciate the importance & Illustrate achievements/special impacts
- Goal: Identify who/what you’re commemorating & Identify+describe qualities, obstacles, and relationship
difference between commemorative and Informative
- Informative: Communicate information clearly and accurately
- Commemorative: Express feelings and cultivate sentiment
three ways to generate imagery
- concrete words
4 ways to create rhthym using language
- alliteration- Nick nicked his knee on the nice narrow table
- the juxtaposition of two opposite words.
- "patience is bitter, but it has a sweet fruit."
purpose of presentation speeches
A speech that presents someone a gift, an award, or some other form of public recognition.
guidelines of an effective presentation speech
- Consider appropriate length
- Highlight achievements and contributions
- Make comments relevance and meaningful
- Explain the award, gift, and etc.
- Praise other nominees
- Express sincere emotions.
what is the purpose of the acceptance speech
A speech that gives thanks for a gift, an award, or some other form of public recognition.
guidelines to an effective Acceptance speech
- Consider appropriate length
- Thank the people who are bestowing recognition
- Recognition those when helped
- Explain what the recognition means to you
- Recognize other nominees
purpose of introductive speech
a speech that introduces the main speaker to the audience. "Ladies and Gentlemen! I introduce to you Nick Deen the world's largest scrub!"
guidelines of an effective intro speech
- Be brief
- Make sure remarks are accurate
- Adapt your remarks to occassions
- Adapt remarks to main speaker
- Adapt remarks to audience
- Create anticipation
ability to influence group members to accomplish a goal
three types of leaders
example of a slippery slope
if Nick stays up late playing videos all night then Nick will be tired, and when Nick gets tired, he sees random black things, and when he sees random black things, the dogs start barking, and when the dogs start barking, the whole neighborhood schemes to kick nick out of their neighborhood, when they do this they blow up his house so he has to live somewhere else, when he has to live somewhere else, he has to live in scrubville. therefore Nick should not play video games late at night or else he will have to live in scrubville.
a group member to which other members defer because of his or her rank
- emerges as a leader during the groups deliberations.
- Nick addressing his cluster: "fine you scrubs! i'll carry this cluster and get the best grades!"
person who is elected as a leader
functions of leadership
- Procedural needs - Routine housekeeping actions Agenda/Notes/Logistics
- Task needs - Substantive actions that help complete the task. Analyzing issues/collecting information/playing devils advocate
- Maintenance needs - Communicative actions necessary to maintain interpersonal relationships. Support/mediation/gate keeping
5 responsibilities in a small group
- Commit yourself to goals of your group
- Fulfill individual assignments
- Avoid interpersonal conflict
- Encourage full participation
- Keep discussion on track
Relflective thinking method
- directs discussion in a problem solving small group
- establish criteria
- best solution
A speech presenting the findings, conclusions, or decisions of a small group.
A public presentation in which several people present prepared speeches on different aspects of the same topic.
A structured conversation on a given topic among several people in front of an audience.