Biochemistry final notes
Card Set Information
Biochemistry final notes
biochemistry final notes
Biochem final notes
what does the light reaction make?
Produces ATP and NADPH for dark reaction
What does the dark reaction make
triose phosphates, which can make sugars
What does the pentose phosphate pathway make
Generates NADPH and 5 carbon sugars that are required by all types of cells
What part of mitochondria allows for more inner membrane space
NADH dumps electrons onto
NADH-Q oxidoreductase (complex 1)
NADH-Q oxidoreductase (complex 1) goes to
what also donates to Q?
(succinate-Q reductase, or complex 2
Q adds to
Q cytochrome C oxidoreductase(complex 3)
Q cytochrome C oxidoreductase(complex 3) donates to
Cyt c donates to
Cytochrome C oxidase (complex 4)
Cytochrome C oxidase (complex 4) donates to
What recycles NAD?
o NADH donating electrons to FMN recycles NAD
o FMN becomes FMNH2
o FMNH2 donates electrons to
What catalyzes this reaction? NADH
+ Q + 5H+ matrix → NAD+ + QH2 + 4H+cytoplasm
What does Q donate to in Q cycle?
what do catalase and sod do?
into H2O2 and O2
Catalase= H2O2 into H2O
what did the stoeckenius prove?
proton gradient and ATP synthesis are separate processes
whats drive what to make ATP?
Gamma (y) drives the Beta (B) subunits, paul boyer
how many protons per ATP?
1 oxygen molecule needs how many protons to be pumped out?
20 (10 per oxygen atom)
how many protons does the ADP ATP anti porter cost?
What is an etc uncoupler?
Entry into citric acid cycle?
Pyruvate (with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex)
becomes acetyl CoA
inhibitors and activators of pyruvate dehydrogenase
-NADH, ATP, and Acetyl CoA are inhibitors
-CoA and NAD+ are activators
Coenzymes with citric acid cycle
Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), lipoic acid, NAD+, FAD, and CoA
Citric synthase is a what?
allosteric enzyme, induced fit, multiple subunits
NADH Producing steps of citric acid cycle
A-Ketoglutarate---(a-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex)--Succinyl CoA
Isocitrate goes to what?
Ketoglutarate with (isocitrate dehydrogenase)
A-Ketoglutarate goes to what with what?
(Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex)
Malate goes to what with what?
Oxaloacetate with (Malate dehydrogenase)
ATP/GTP producing step
Succinyl CoA—(Succinyl CoA synthetase)---Succinate
Succinyl CoA goes to what with what?
Succinate with Succinyl CoA synthetase
Regulation steps of citric acid cycle
Pyruvate- acetyl CoA
A-ketoglutarate- Succinyl CoA
general inhibitors of TCA cycle
inhibited by ATP, the next step (ie acetyl CoA or succinyl CoA), and NADH
general activators of TCA cycle
activated by substrate (like pyruvate), and ADP
Pyruvate carboxylase does what?
makes oxaloacetate from pyruvate
Unique enzymes for Gluconeogenesis
pyruvate Carboxykinase, Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase, Glucose-6-phosphatase
-converts Oxaloacetate and GTP into Phosphoenolpyruvate
converts Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate into Fructose-6-phosphate
G6P to Glucose and Pi
Enzyme that can carry CO2?
Biotin Transfers CO2