Biochemistry final notes

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zzto
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Biochemistry final notes
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2014-12-17 03:14:36
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Biochem final notes
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  1. what does the light reaction make?
    Produces ATP and NADPH for dark reaction
  2. What does the dark reaction make
    triose phosphates, which can make sugars
  3. What does the pentose phosphate pathway make
    Generates NADPH and 5 carbon sugars that are required by all types of cells
  4. What part of mitochondria allows for more inner membrane space
    cristae
  5. NADH dumps electrons onto
    NADH-Q oxidoreductase (complex 1)
  6. NADH-Q oxidoreductase (complex 1) goes to
    Q
  7. what also donates to Q?
    (succinate-Q reductase, or complex 2
  8. Q adds to
    Q cytochrome C oxidoreductase(complex 3)
  9. Q cytochrome C oxidoreductase(complex 3) donates to
    Cyt c
  10. Cyt c donates to
    Cytochrome C oxidase (complex 4)
  11. Cytochrome C oxidase (complex 4) donates to
    O2
  12. What recycles NAD?
    • o  NADH donating electrons to FMN recycles NAD
    • o  FMN becomes FMNH2
    • o  FMNH2 donates electrons to
    • iron-sulfur clusters
  13. What catalyzes this reaction? NADH
    + Q + 5H+ matrix → NAD+ + QH2 + 4H+cytoplasm
    NADH-Q Oxidoreductase
  14. What does Q donate to in Q cycle?
    Cytochrome c
  15. what do catalase and sod do?
    • SOD= O2- into H2O2 and O2
    • Catalase= H2O2 into H2O
  16. what did the stoeckenius prove?
    proton gradient and ATP synthesis are separate processes
  17. whats drive what to make ATP?
    Gamma (y) drives the Beta (B) subunits, paul boyer
  18. how many protons per ATP?
    4 protons
  19. 1 oxygen molecule needs how many protons to be pumped out?
    20 (10 per oxygen atom)
  20. how many protons does the ADP ATP anti porter cost?
    1 proton
  21. What is an etc uncoupler?
    2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP)
  22. Entry into citric acid cycle?
    • Pyruvate (with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex)
    • becomes acetyl CoA
  23. inhibitors and activators of pyruvate dehydrogenase
    • -NADH, ATP, and Acetyl CoA are inhibitors
    • -CoA and NAD+ are activators
  24. Coenzymes with citric acid cycle
    Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), lipoic acid, NAD+, FAD, and CoA
  25. Citric synthase is a what?
    allosteric enzyme, induced fit, multiple subunits
  26. NADH Producing steps of citric acid cycle
    Isocitrate---(isocitrate dehydrogenase)--Ketoglutarate

    A-Ketoglutarate---(a-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex)--Succinyl CoA

    Malate—(Malate dehydrogenase)--Oxaloacetate
  27. Isocitrate goes to what?
    Ketoglutarate with (isocitrate dehydrogenase)
  28. A-Ketoglutarate goes to what with what?
    • SuccinylCoA with
    • (Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex)
  29. Malate goes to what with what?
    Oxaloacetate with (Malate dehydrogenase)
  30. ATP/GTP producing step
    Succinyl CoA—(Succinyl CoA synthetase)---Succinate
  31. Succinyl CoA goes to what with what?
    Succinate with Succinyl CoA synthetase
  32. FADH2 production
    Succinate—(Succinate dehydrogenase)--fumarate
  33. Regulation steps of citric acid cycle
    • Pyruvate- acetyl CoA
    • Isocitrate- ketogluratate
    • A-ketoglutarate- Succinyl CoA
  34. general inhibitors of TCA cycle
    inhibited by ATP, the next step (ie acetyl CoA or succinyl CoA), and NADH
  35. general activators of TCA cycle
    activated by substrate (like pyruvate), and ADP
  36. Pyruvate carboxylase does what?
    makes oxaloacetate from pyruvate
  37. Unique enzymes for Gluconeogenesis
    pyruvate Carboxykinase, Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase, Glucose-6-phosphatase
  38. pyruvate Carboxykinase
    -converts Oxaloacetate and GTP into Phosphoenolpyruvate
  39. Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase
    converts Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate into Fructose-6-phosphate
  40. Glucose-6-phosphatase
    G6P to Glucose and Pi
  41. Enzyme that can carry CO2?
    Biotin Transfers CO2

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