Muscles and Tendons of the Distal Limb

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Anonymous
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291841
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Muscles and Tendons of the Distal Limb
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2014-12-17 10:47:17
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Muscle Tendon Limb
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Vet Med - Module 7
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  1. What is another term for the proximal interphalangeal joint in horses?
    Pastern joint
  2. What provides stability to the proximal interphalangeal joint?
    • Sagittal groove on P1 and sagittal ridge on P2
    • Medial and collateral ligaments
  3. The proximal interphalangeal joint is a high/low motion joint?
    Low motion joint
  4. What is another term for the distal interphalangeal joint in horses?
    Coffin joint
  5. What provides stability to the distal interphalangeal joint?
    Collateral ligaments
  6. Through what structure can you gain access for injection into the distal phalangeal joint?
    Dorsal bursa
  7. Where is the navicular bursa located?  And what is its function?
    It is located between the distal sesamoid and DDFT.  Its function is to cushion the DDFT as it moves over the joint.
  8. What separates the navicular bursa from the joint space?
    Impar ligament
  9. What provides support to the metacarpo/tarsophalangeal joint in dogs?
    • Interosseus muscle for each digit
    • Metacarpal foot pad
  10. In the distal interphalangeal joint, what structure runs tom the middle phalanx to the extensor process of the distal phalanx?
    Dorsal elastic ligament
  11. What is the function of the dorsal elastic ligament?
    It suspends the tip of the ungual process
  12. With regards to the distal interphalangeal joint in dogs, describe what problem can occur if the DDFT is severed
    The dorsal elastic ligament and DDFT are balanced forces, which work together to hold the tip of the claw above horizontal.  However, if the DDFT is severed the forces become unbalanced and the claw sticks up further than normal.
  13. Describe the arrangement of the distal interphalangeal joint in cats
    Cats have a very strong dorsal elastic ligament which naturally holds the joint in hyperextension.  The distal phalanges are rotated dorsally and the claws rest in a skin fold/sheath between phalanges.  This allows the claws to remain sharp for hunting, climbing, etc.
  14. How do you expose a cat's claws?
    Applying manual pressure to the digital pad contracts the DDFT and flexes the joint.  This will expose the claws.
  15. List the distal muscles of the forelimb
    Extensor carpi radialis muscle, common digital extensor muscle, extensor carpi ulnaris muscle, flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, superficial digital flexor muscle, deep digital flexor muscle
  16. What is the origin and insertion of Extensor carpi radialis?
    • O = lateral epicondyle of humerus
    • I = metacarpal bones
  17. Extensor carpi radialis is located on the ... aspect of the forelimb?
    cranial
  18. What is the function of Extensor carpi radialis?
    Carpal extensor
  19. What is the nerve supply to Extensor carpi radialis?
    Radial nerve
  20. Extensor carpi radialis is an oblique muscle, what does this mean?
    It crosses at the level of the carpus
  21. What is the origin and insertion of the Common digital extensor muscle?
    • O = lateral epicondyle of humerus
    • I = all digits
  22. Common digital extensor muscle is located on the ... aspect of the limb?
    cranio-lateral
  23. What are the functions of the Common digital extensor muscle?
    Carpal extensor and digital extensor
  24. What is the nerve supply to the Common digital extensor muscle?
    Radial nerve
  25. What is the origin and insertion of Extensor carpi ulnaris?
    • O = lateral epicondyle of humerus
    • I = metacarpal bone and accessory carpal bone
  26. Extensor carpi ulnaris is located on the ... aspect of the limb?
    lateral
  27. What are the functions of Extensor carpi ulnaris?
    Carpal extensor and flexor (depends on position of the limb)
  28. What is the nerve supply to Extensor carpi ulnaris?
    Radial nerve
  29. What is the origin and insertion of Flexor carpi ulnaris?
    • O = medial epicondyle
    • I = olecranon process of the ulna
  30. Flexor carpi ulnaris is located on the ... aspect of the limb?
    caudal
  31. What is the function of Flexor carpi ulnaris?
    Carpal flexor
  32. What is the nerve supply to Flexor carpi ulnaris?
    Median and ulnar nerves
  33. What is the origin and insertion of the Superficial digital flexor muscle?
    • O = medial epicondyle
    • I = all digits
  34. The Superficial digital flexor muscle is located on the ... aspect of the limb?
    caudal
  35. What are the functions of the Superficial digital flexor muscle?
    Carpal flexor and digital flexor
  36. What is the nerve supply to the Superficial digital flexor muscle?
    Median and ulnar nerves
  37. What is the origin and insertion of the Deep digital flexor muscle?
    • O = medial epicondyle, radius and ulna
    • I = all digits
  38. The Deep digital flexor muscle is located on the ... aspect of the limb?
    caudal
  39. What are the functions of the Deep digital flexor muscle?
    Carpal flexor and digital flexor
  40. What is the nerve supply to the Deep digital flexor muscle?
    Median and ulnar nerves
  41. What do the flexor tendons run through on the palmar aspect of the distal limb of the horse?
    The carpal canal
  42. What are the dorsal, lateral and palmar boundaries of the carpal canal?
    • Dorsal - palmar aspect of carpal joint capsule
    • Lateral - accessory carpal bone
    • Palmar - palmar/flexor retinaculum
  43. What is contained within the carpal canal?
    • DDFT
    • SSFT
    • Blood vessels and nerves
  44. What protects tendons where they pass through confined spaces?
    A tendon sheath
  45. What happens during inflammation of the tendon sheath?
    There is increased fluid volume/pressure which causes the sheath to bulge proximally and distally - this is known as 'thoroughpin'
  46. List the soft tissue structures of the distal limb (including those found only in horses)
    Common digital extensor tendon, SDFT, DDFT, Check ligament, Suspensory ligament
  47. In horses, which ligament branches does the common digital extensor tendon receive?
    Suspensory ligament branches
  48. In horses, which ligament does the SDFT receive before running through the carpal canal?
    Accessory check ligament
  49. In horses, which ligament does the DDFT receive distal to the carpus?
    Accessory check ligament
  50. What structure does the DDFT pass through in both dogs and horses?
    A split in the SDFT
  51. What bone does the DDFT run over in horses but not in dogs?
    Distal sesamoid - these are not present in dogs
  52. What is the function of annular ligaments on the palmar surface of the distal limb?
    To hold the tendons tight against the bone surface
  53. List the order of soft tissue structures on the palmar aspect of the distal limb
    Skin, SDFT, DDFT, check ligament, suspensory ligament
  54. In horses, what is the chestnut?
    A vestigial horn pad seen on the 1st metacarpal bone
  55. In horses, what is the ergot?
    A horny lump in the skin on the palmar aspect of the metacarpal joint.  This is a remnant of the metacarpal pad.
  56. When would you see swelling in the area of the splint bones?
    Whilst the splint bones mineralise.  The swelling will go down when the bone has formed.
  57. Where would you feel a swelling of the articular surface of the fetlock joint?
    Between suspensory ligament and MC3/MT3
  58. Where would you feel a swelling of the tendon sheath?
    Palmar to the suspensory ligament and proximal to the annular ligament

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