Foundations and Gilded Age.txt

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Foundations and Gilded Age.txt
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  1. (7 years war)Fought between Britain and France, conflict over North America
    French and Indian War
  2. Declaration of Independence
    established July 4, 1776. Declared our independence from Great Britain.
  3. a document signed amongst the 13 original colonies that established the United States of America as a confederation of sovereign states and served as its first constitution
    Articles of Confederation
  4. took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to address problems in governing the United States of America, which had been operating under the Articles of Confederation following independence from Great Britain.
    Constitutional Convention
  5. Bill of Rights
    Written by James Madison, first 10 amendments of the constitution
  6. US Constitution
    Supreme law of the United States, Revision of the Articles of Confederation
  7. Alexis de Tocqueville
    French political thinker, “Democracy in America”
  8. “E Pluribus Unum”
    Latin for “out of many, one”, motto suggested by congress to design a seal
  9. The right of a government to expropriate property for public use
    Eminent domain
  10. Transcontinental RR
    made trade easier and westward expansion
  11. Bessemer Process
    inexpensive way to produce steel
  12. Alexander Graham Bell
    invented the telephone
  13. Thomas Edison
    lightbulb- factories could stay open later
  14. Free Enterprise
    citizens could run businesses the way they wanted to
  15. National Market
    railroads made market expand west
  16. few government regulations on business, government supported owners over workers, high tarriffs led to lower prices for american goods: became millonaires in unethical ways
    “Captains of Industry” or “Robber Barons”
  17. nations leading supplier of steel, became millionaire, *the philosophy of giving back to society,industrialist _____ gave 350 million back to society, & he wrote a book which promoted philanthropy
    Carnegie and “Gospel of Wealth”
  18. Rockefeller
    standard oil company, ran one of the nations largest monopolies,
  19. monopoly
    business that controls an entire market with no competition
  20. laissez-faire
    the free enterprise system led to little government regulation/interference with business
  21. trust
    synonymous with the monopolies (anti-trust means hands on)
  22. Interstate Commerce Act (1887) and ICC
    ICA made railroads the first industry to be regulated by the federal government, ICC was created to regulate things like railroad fare rates
  23. Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890
    first attempt by US government to prevent trusts from forming, in an attempt to keep monopolies from taking over
  24. first attempt by US government to prevent trusts from forming, in an attempt to keep monopolies from taking over
    urbanization
  25. organization of workers who unite to protect rights of workers from from abusive employers, formed during Gilded Age when poor working conditions led workers to bargain for better conditions by employers
    union
  26. done in an effort to make point more clear but led to a drop in union membership as now people viewed them as violent and unamerican,
    strike
  27. Homestead Strike
    Carnegie Steel workers caused one of the most violent strikes in US history after a dispute led to the lockout of workers
  28. Pullman Strike
    Nationwide conflict between railroad unions and railroad workers, leading to the shutdown of all railroads and almost and economic crash
  29. temporary denial of employment to workers, usually if they were protesting in unions formed during Gilded Age
    lock-out
  30. union agreement where employer only hires union members, who must remain union members to keep job
    closed shop
  31. The first national labor union made and allowed workers 8 hour days and the right to go on strike.
    Knights of Labor
  32. American Federation of Labor
    Smaller unions joined together of skilled workers.
  33. They made the AFL and they saw the need for Americans to have a minimum wage and better working conditions
    Terrence Powderly and Samuel Gompers roles in labor
  34. Haymarket Riot
    police killed innocent people who were workers that were rioting
  35. Homestead Strike
    An industrial lock out
  36. Pullman Strike
    Were railroad workers went on strike due to mistreatment.
  37. Ellis and Angel Islands
    Checkpoints to see if immigrants were eligible to come in to America
  38. Ethnic Enclaves and Tenements
    A little neighborhood for a ethnic groups and tenements are a multi family house or apartment.
  39. Boss Tweed
    New immigrants would be helped by getting a job or a home and then on election day they were forced to vote for boss tweed.
  40. Chinese Exclusion Act
    significant restriction on free immigration in US, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese immigration
  41. Great Plains- Push and Pulls West
    • -PUSH: crop failures and dry lands
    • -Pull: Good soil, Money for farming
  42. Migration of about 100,000 prospectors to the Yukon between 1896 and 1899. Gold was discovered there and as soon as people got the news, it triggered a stampede of prospectors.
    Klondike Gold Rush and Sewards Folly-49ers
  43. Homestead Act
    United States federal law that an applicant ownership of land at little or no cost.
  44. Little Bighorn was a battle fought between Colonel Custer's 7th cavalry and the native tribes of sioux and cheyenne near the little Bighorn river in Montana, where Custer and his 7th cavalry was severely outnumbered and were all killed.
    Indian Wars- Little Big Horn and Wounded Knee
  45. Dawes Act
    Authorized the president to survey the native tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual indians, those who accepted allotments and lived separately from the tribe were granted U.S. citizenship. It was later amended.
  46. Legal designation for area of land managed by a Native American Tribe under the US bureau of Indian Affairs.
    Reservations
  47. American Indian Citizenship Act (1924)
    Congress grants citizenship to all Native Americans born in the U.S.

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