What are the different parts of the wall of the hoof?
Toe, quarters, heel
What is the function of the bulbs of the heel?
What marks the boundary between the skin and hoof?
What does the coronary band produce?
The hoof wall
What is just distal to the coronary band?
What does the periople produce?
The wateproof layer of the hoof - this extends 2/3 of the way down the hoof
What part of the solar surface of the hoof is weight bearing?
What is the white line?
The boundary between the wall and sole
What is the function of the frog?
Shock absorption during weight bearing
Where is the digital cushion located? And what is its function?
The digital cushion is located deep to the frog. Its function is shock absorption and to provide protection of the DDFT, distal phalanx, navicular bursa and navicular bone.
What type of cartilages are located at the hoof?
Medial and lateral cartilages
Why is abscess formation in the hoof very painful?
There is no way for the horse to relieve the pressure in their foot during abscess formation
True or false: the dermis in the hoof has a good vascular and nerve supply?
True - this means it will be sensitive and bleed if injured
What is the term for the ridges that run along the surface of the dermis?
What are the different types of laminae present on the dermis?
Primary - vertical ridges
Secondary - microscopic horizontal ridges
The ... layer produces the epidermis?
In what two areas of the dermis is the germinative layer active?
The coronary band and solar surface
Describe hoof production at the coronary band
The dermis is formed into conical shaped papillae. This produces epidermis in the form of tubes of keratin, which extend distally towards the solar surface of the hoof. Gaps in between keratin tubes are filled in by inter tubercular horn (less organised keratin).
How much does the epidermis grow every month?
True or false: the epidermis has a good nerve and blood supply?
False - it has NO nerve or blood supply
What type of laminae interdigitate with the dermal laminae?
What structure marks the interdigitation between the sensitive dermal laminae and insensitive epidermal laminae?
The white line
Describe the role the white line plays in the hoof with regards to P3
The white line suspends P3 within the hoof capsule and transfers the weight of P3 to the hoof wall during weight bearing
True or false: keratin on the solar surface has the same organisation as keratin produced from the coronary band?
False - keratin on the solar surface is not as organised as keratin that goes into the hoof wall
What happens when there is damage to the hoof capsule?
The dormant germinative layer is activated. This produces keratin, but it is disorganised and temporary.
Describe what happens to the contents of the hoof whilst weight bearing
Frog contacts the ground. The digital cushion is compressed (this forces blood back up the leg). The lateral cartilages expand laterally to dissipate forces. Hoof wall contacts the ground. Weight is transferred to the distal phalanx and then transferred via interdigitation of laminae to the hoof wall.
What is laminitis?
Inflammation of the laminae in the hoof
What are some of the consequences of laminitis?
Rotation and sinking of the distal phalanx. This is known as 'slipper toe'. In some cases, as the sole is very thin, the distal phalanx can protrude through the sole. This is fatal for the horse.
How do you manage laminitis?
Frog supports are put under the frog to try and prevent rotation and sinking of the distal phalanx.
True or false: vets can shoe horses?
False - you must be a qualified farrier to shoe horses
Why are horses shoed?
To protect the hoof wall from excessive wear and provide traction for competition
Why are horse shoes open at the back?
To allow expansion of the heel bulbs
Where are nails placed when shoeing a horse?
They are placed in the insensitive epidermal laminae, outwith the with line
What must you do to the tip of the nails when shoeing a horse? What effect does this have on shoe removal?
The tip of the nail emerges from the dorsal wall so it must be clipped and flattened. When removing a shoe you must straighten the nail before you remove the shoe. If you pull a shoe off without unbending the nails then you will cause trenches to form.