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List some of the functions of carnivore footpads
- Resistance to trauma/wear and tear
- Traction - prevent slipping
- Anti-concussion/shock absorption
- Protect deep structures
- Support digit - allow weight bearing over entire digit and metacarpo/tarsophalangeal joints
List the different footpads on the forelimb and hindlimb
- Forelimb: carpal/stopper pad, metacarpal pad, four digital pads
- Hindlimb: all present except the carpal/stopper pad
What is the function of the carpal/stopper pad?
Protects the accessory carpal bone
What type of epithelium is present on carnivore foot pads?
Keratinised stratified squamous epithelium
True or false: sweat glands are present on the footpads of dogs?
True - this is one of the only areas in the dog where sweat glands are present
What type of structures are present in the digital cushion of a carnivore footpad? What is the function of the digital cushion?
Fibrous tissue, elastic tissue, fat, vascular channels. Its function is shock absorption.
What clinical considerations are there with regards to wounds on the carnivore footpads?
Due to the elastic tissue present in the digital cushion any wound in a food pad can be difficult to close. Also, due to the vast blood supply in the digital cushion any wound in a digital pad will bleed extensively.
Why must foot bandages be changed every couple of days in dogs?
As they have sweat glands present on their feet
What injury can lead to the appearance of a 'stubbed toe'?
A severed DDFT
In which two areas of the carnivore claw is the germinative layer active? What areas of the claw do these cover with horn
- The recess between the claw and skin - horn grows over the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the ungual process
- Palmar surface of ungual process - horn covers the palmar surface
True or false: the dermis in carnivore claws is sensitive and bleeds?
Which structures maintain the position of the carnivore claw?
Dorsal elastic ligament & extensor tendons and the DDFT
Give examples of circumstances that would lead to reduced wear of the claw
- Not walking
- Walking on soft ground
- The dew claw
- DDFT damage
Ruminants have cloven hooves and so they are divided into ...?
Medial and lateral claws
What divides the medial and lateral claws in ruminants?
The interdigital cleft
True or false: ruminants have a frog?
What area of the ruminant hoof is prone to damage?
The parapedal groove as it is a transition between hard to soft horn
What three mechanisms does the ruminant employ to help with shock absorption
Bulbous heels, digital cushion and splaying of their digits
In ruminants, which part of the dermis is covered by laminae?
Only the distal part
True or false: ruminants have both primary and secondary laminae?
False - ruminants only have primary laminae
Which part of the claw is more prone to overgrowth in a) forelimb b) hindlimb?
- a) inner claw
- b) outer claw
What is a common problem with the soles of ruminant feet?
What is the term for infection of the skin between the two digits?
What can happen in severe secondary hoof infections?
The infection can travel up into the DDFT sheath
What is the function of the equine stay apparatus?
It is a mechanism for passive weight bearing. It allows horses to sleep standing up, which is good for avoiding predators.
Which muscle suspends the weight of the body between the forelimbs?
What are the components of the equine stay apparatus?
Biceps brachii, collateral ligaments of elbow, lacertus fibrosis, palmar fibrocartilage joint reinforcement, SDFT and check ligament, retinaculum, suspensory ligament, common digital extensor, proximal sesamoids, distal sesamoidean ligaments, DDFT and SDFT, check ligaments, annular ligaments