FSP Class-1 - History - Cranial Nerves

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FSP Class-1 - History - Cranial Nerves
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2015-03-21 17:54:40
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FSP Class History Cranial Nerves
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FSP Class-1 - History - Cranial Nerves
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  1. Tesla (Nicola Tesla)
    (T) unit to measure magnetism at isocentre of the magnet
  2. Highest diagnostic magnetism without any biological effect
    3T
  3. at 1T photon spin -
    42.6 mhz
  4. Qualities of magnet:
    • Stability - cryogen
    • Homogeneity - shimming coils
    • Must be large - up to 2T
  5. Cryogenic materials, F-C-K
    • Helium
    • Nitrogen
    • -469F,  -269C,  4K
  6. 2 types of coils
    • active - electrical (always on)
    • passive - Sheets of iron cores stacked together
  7. 3 types of magnet
    • Permanent - vertical whereas
    • Resistive - horizontal
    • Superconductive - horizontal (more modern)
  8. Radiofrequency
    • Low level electromagnetic radiation
    • Lowest energy wave in the electromagnetic spectrum (Radio wave)
    • Applied to the human body
  9. Hydrogen is used because:
    • most abundant proton tin the body
    • possesses a MM of its own
    • has a property called spin or AM or direction
  10. Magnetic moment is -
    Vector quantity, which has magnitude and direction
  11. Vector quantity depends on -
    • strength and orientation of the magnetic field
    • object that produces the magnetic field
  12. necessities of MRI
    • maget
    • radiofriquency
    • protons
  13. resonance
    Increase in amplitude of oscillation of an electric or mechanical system exposed to a periodic force whose frequency is equal or very close to the natural undamped (not tending toward a state of rest) frequency of the system
  14. Oscillation
    regular variation in magnitude or position around a central point
  15. Property of the atom
    Can absorb energy only at the Lamor frequency
  16. Lamor frequency
    Is a rate of precession of a spin packet or group of spins experiencing the same magnetic field
  17. Precession
    is a slow gyration of the axis of a spinning body
  18. Resonant frequency of proton is -
    constant - for 1T - 42.6mhz
  19. Lamor EQ:
    • W0 = y B0
    • W0 - Resonant frequency
    • y - Gyro Magnetic Ratio = 42.6 mhz
    •   - Proton spin frequency at 1 T
    • B0 - main magnet (0.5T, 1.5T...)
    •       21.3mhz = 42.6mhz x 0.5T
  20. Fringe Field at 3T
    30,000 g
  21. 20,000 gauss at what magnet strength?
    2T
  22. Away from isocentre of the magnet
    • Fringe Field
    • Gauss (1T = 10,000 gauss)
    •       1.5T = 15,000g
  23. Michael Faraday
    Any moving electric charge create a small magnetism. Electricity is traveling in the circular and magnetic is perpendicular
  24. 2 designs of MRI
    • horizontal
    • vertical
  25. Raymond Damadian
    1977 first MRI, 3-6 hours for image. Was not approved.
  26. Who and when discovered EPI - Echo Planar Imaging?
    Paul Lautenbur and Peter Mansfield
  27. Paul Lautenbur and Peter Mansfield
    • 2003 discovered EPI - Echo Planar Imaging
    • 70 images per 30 sec
    • to read out infarct (strock)
  28. Who and when discovered MRI signal for liquid and solid?
    1952 - Felix Bloch = Henry Purcell
  29. Felix Bloch = Henry Purcell
    • 1952 discovered MRI signal for
    •     - liquid - (MRA) Angiography
    •     - solid - Bone
  30. Pulse Sequence
    Specific instruction telling the PC how image should look
  31. Who discovered nuclear spin?
    Niel Bohr
  32. Who is Columbus in MRI?
    Niel Bohr
  33. Niel Bohr
    • Columbus in MRI
    • discover nuclear spin - ability of P to create GMR (Gyro Magnetic Ratio) = AM (Angular Moment) + (MM Magnetic Moment)
    • GMR is NMV (Net Magnetic Vector) forms the images
    • but called it Nuclear Resonance Imaging - wrong
  34. GMR
    GMR (Gyro Magnetic Ratio) = AM (Angular Moment) + (MM Magnetic Moment)
  35. AM
    GMR (Gyro Magnetic Ratio) = AM (Angular Moment) + (MM Magnetic Moment)
  36. MM
    GMR (Gyro Magnetic Ratio) = AM (Angular Moment) + (MM Magnetic Moment)
  37. NMV
    • Net Magnetic Vector =
    • GMR (Gyro Magnetic Ratio) = AM (Angular Moment) + (MM Magnetic Moment)
  38. Vector
    • Physical force with magnitude and direction
    •    - magnitude: FOV (Field of View) region of interest
    •    - direction: Ax, Sag, Cor, Obl 9activation 2 plans simultaneously
  39. Magnitude
    FOV (Field of View) region of interest
  40. FOV
    • FOV (Field of View) region of interest
    • Magnetude
  41. Transformer to convert analog to digital
    Fourier Transformer
  42. Fourier Transformer
    Transformer to convert analog to digital
  43. Biological effects of MF
    • 40y 10T on mankeys
    • 1) Heating of tissue (no > 1C)
    • 2) Possible cataract formation. Limitation is set on manufacturing of machine
  44. Electromagnetic spectrum
    • Radio wave 
    • Micro wave
    • Infra Red
    • Visible light
    • Ultra violet
    • X-Ray
    • Gamma
  45. Comparison (CT - Nuc - MRI)
    • CT - Millions electrons - Impression
    • Nuc - Billions photons - Abstract
    • MR - Trillions (Macroscopic) protons - Realism
  46. Types of protons
    • 1) Free radicals - in water
    • 2) Bound - bound in fat
  47. MRI Advantage
    • 1) No ionizing radiation
    • 2) Best soft tissue resolution
    • 3) Direct (not constr) plane scanning
    • 4) No artifact (Bone + Air)
  48. MRI Disadvantage
    • 1) Pace maker
    • 2) Cochlear implant (Hair Air - can remove)
    • 3) Aneurism clip. Conditional - titanium
    • 4) Battery shorten life
  49. Gordon Well Patch
    external pace maker (good for MRI)
  50. CFS Pathway
    • Lateral ventricles  Interventricular Foramen (Monro)  3rd ventricle
    • 3rd ventricle  Cerebral Aqueduct (Silvius)  4th ventricle
    • 4th ventricle  lateral & median foramen  spinal cord meninges
  51. Trigeminal
    • 5 (B) largest in the brain
    • chew
  52. Largest in the brain nerve
    Trigeminal - 5
  53. 5th Cranial Nerve
    • Trigeminal – largest in the brain
    • chew
  54. Nerve responsible for chew?
    Trigeminal - 5
  55. Bells Palsy is disorder of
    7th Cranial Nerve
  56. Nerve responsible for facial expression?
    Facial Nerve - 7
  57. Nerve - passage IAC
    • Facial Nerve - 7
    • Vestibulocochlear - 8
  58. Facial Nerve
    • 7th (acoustic)
    • passage IAC
    • facial expression
    •    Disorder: Bells Palsy
  59. 7th Cranial Nerve
    • Facial (acoustic)
    • passage IAC
    • facial expression
    •    Disorder: Bells Palsy
  60. Nerve responsible for balance, hearing?
    Vestibulocochlear - 8
  61. Disorder of the Vestibulocochlear nerve
    Tinnitis - hearing noses when there is no outside source
  62. Tinnitis
    • - Disorder of the Vestibulocochlear nerve (8)
    • - hearing noses when there is no outside source
  63. Vestibulocochlear Nerve
    • 8th (acoustic)
    • passage IAC
    • balance, hearing
    •    Disorder: Tinnitis - hearing noses when there is no outside source
  64. 8th Cranial Nerve
    • Vestibulocochlear (acoustic)
    • passage IAC
    • balance, hearing
    •    Disorder: Tinnitis - hearing noses when there is no outside source
  65. Vagus
    • - 10th Cranial Nerve
    • - larger in the body
  66. 10th Cranial Nerve
    • Vagus - larger in the body - S2
    • Wanderer
  67. Controls sex hormons
    Pituitary gland (hypophysis)
  68. Hypophysis
    Pituitary gland
  69. Controls growth
    Pituitary gland (hypophysis)
  70. Pituitary gland (hypophysis)
    growth, sex hormons
  71. Connects pituitary to hypothalamus
    Infandibulum
  72. Infandibulum
    • connects pituitary to hypothalamus
    • Prolacting - continuous w contrast in dynamic mode (same area multiple times w min delay)
  73. Corpus Callosum
    connects cerebral hemispheres
  74. Connects cerebral hemispheres
    Corpus Callosum
  75. Superior part of the brainstem
    Midbrain
  76. Midbrain
    superior part of the brainstem
  77. Separates cerebrum and cerebellum
    Tentorium Cerebelli
  78. Tentorium Cerebelli
    separates cerebrum and cerebellum
  79. Cerebellum
    organs of hearing
  80. Arnold Chiary Malformation
    Cerebellar Tonsils extend (petrutes) down into foramen magnum
  81. Cerebellar Tonsils
    • lobe-like projections on the inferior aspect of the hemispheres
    • Arnold Chiary Malformation - Cerebellar Tonsils extend (petrutes) down into foramen magnum
  82. heart rate
    Medula Oblongata
  83. Blood pressure
    Medula Oblongata
  84. Medula Oblongata
    respiration, heart rate, bl pressure
  85. slip and waike
    Pons
  86. respiration
    • Pons
    • Medula Oblongata
  87. Pons
    • b/w midbrain and medula
    • slip and waike
    • respiration
  88. Higher learning
    caudate nucleus
  89. Muscle coordination
    caudate nucleus
  90. caudate nucleus
    • ring along lateral ventricle
    • muscle coordination and higher learning
  91. Fissure closest to Basilar Artery
    Lateral Fissure (Silvian)
  92. Fissure more pronounced on the LT side
    Lateral Fissure (Silvian)
  93. Lateral Fissure (Silvian)
    • - closest to Basilar Artery
    • - more pronounced on the LT side
  94. MRI marker for extremeties
    Vitamin E tablet

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