UWORLD1

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rere_girl4ever
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291909
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UWORLD1
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2014-12-19 02:54:23
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UWORLD1
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  1. What is the TATA box?
    The TATA box is the promoter region that binds transcription factors and RNA polymerase II during the initiation of TRANSCRIPTION. 

    It is located approximately 25 bases upstream from the beginning of the coding region.
  2. What is the CAAT box?
    The CAAT box is the promoter region that binds transcription factors and RNA polymerase II during the initiation of TRANSCRIPTION

    It is located 60-80 bases upstream from the beginning of the coding region.
  3. What are the promotors?
    • 1. TATA box 
    • 2. CAAT box
    • The promoter regions bind transcription factors and RNA polymerase II during the initation of TRANSCRIPTION
  4. What is the function of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNP?)
    Remove introns from hnRNA
  5. Describe the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis.
    In the intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway, once the cell is exposed to stress ect, the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-x are replaced with pro-apoptotic proteins Bak, Bax, Bim.

    The proaoptotic proteins allow for the increased permeability of the mitochondria, which results in the release of caspase-activating substances like cytochrome c
  6. What are the anti-apoptotic proteins and how do they work?
    • Bcl-2 and Bcl-x
    • They prevent cytochrome c release by binding to and inhibiting Apaf-1 (which normally induces activation of caspases).
  7. What are the pro-apoptotic proteins?
    Bak, Bax, Bim

    Increase release of cytochrome c
  8. What is Apaf-1?
    • Induces activation of caspases. 
    • Inhibited by anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2)
  9. In which disease is Bcl-2 overexpressed?
    • Follicular lymphoma 
    • Bcl-1 (anti-apoptotic)
  10. Describe the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis.
    • 1.  Fas (CD95) crosslinks with Fas-Ligand.
    • 2. Multiple molecules of Fas come together, forming a binding site for FADD (death domain-containing adapter protein)
    • 3. FADD binds inactive caspases, activating them.
    • 1. Cytotoxic T cell release of perforin and granzyme B
  11. What is CD95?
    Fas (extrinsic apoptotic pathway)
  12. What is the death domain-containing adapter protein?
    FADD (extrinsic apoptosis pathway)
  13. What is the function of superoxide dismutase?
    Catalyzes the reduction of superoxide anions to hydrogen peroxide.
  14. Describe Type I muscle fibers
    • Slow twitch, red fibers
    • Perform actions requiring low-level sustained force.
    • Type I fibers function primarily by aerobic metabolism, meaning they have high myoglobin (oxygen storage) and mitochondrial (aerobic respiration) concentrations
  15. Describe Type II muscle fibers
    • Fast twitch, white fibers
    • Specialized for generating rapid, forceful pulses of movement.
    • Derive ATP energy from anaerobic glycolysis (decreased mitochondrial and myoglobin levels)
  16. Weight training results in hypertrophy of which type of muscle fibers?
    • Fast twitch, white fibers
    • Specialized for generating rapid, forceful pulses of movement.
    • Derive ATP energy from anaerobic glycolysis (decreased mitochondrial and myoglobin levels)
  17. This type of muscle fiber is glycogen rich.
    • Fast twitch, white fibers
    • Specialized for generating rapid, forceful pulses of movement.
    • Derive ATP energy from anaerobic glycolysis (decreased mitochondrial and myoglobin levels)
  18. Red muscle fiber
    • Slow twitch, red fibers
    • Perform actions requiring low-level sustained force.
    • Type I fibers function primarily by aerobic metabolism, meaning they have high myoglobin (oxygen storage) and mitochondrial (aerobic respiration) concentrations
  19. White muscle fiber
    • Fast twitch, white fibers.
    • Specialized for generating rapid, forceful pulses of movement.
    • Derive ATP energy from anaerobic glycolysis (decreased mitochondrial and myoglobin levels)
  20. Slow twitch muscle fiber
    • Slow twitch, red fibers
    • Perform actions requiring low-level sustained force.
    • Type I fibers function primarily by aerobic metabolism, meaning they have high myoglobin (oxygen storage) and mitochondrial (aerobic respiration) concentrations
  21. Fast twitch muscle fiber
    • Fast twitch, white fibers
    • Specialized for generating rapid, forceful pulses of movement.
    • Derive ATP energy from anaerobic glycolysis (decreased mitochondrial and myoglobin levels)
  22. Mitochondria rich muscle fiber
    • Slow twitch, red fibers
    • Perform actions requiring low-level sustained force.
    • Type I fibers function primarily by aerobic metabolism, meaning they have high myoglobin (oxygen storage) and mitochondrial (aerobic respiration) concentrations
  23. Myoglobin rich muscle fiber
    • Slow twitch, red fibers
    • Perform actions requiring low-level sustained force.
    • Type I fibers function primarily by aerobic metabolism, meaning they have high myoglobin (oxygen storage) and mitochondrial (aerobic respiration) concentrations
  24. which muscles contain predominantly type 1 muscle fibers?
    •  paraspinal
  25. What causes Polyhydramnios?
    • 1. Decreased fetal swallowing
    • - Anencephaly 
    • - Gastrointestinal obstruction (duodenal, esophageal, intestinal atresia)
    • 2. Increased fetal urination
    • - High output cardiac anemia
    • - Twin to twin transfusion syndrome
  26. Wide fixed splitting of S2 is seen in ?
    ASD results in a left to right shunt, which increases RA and RV volumes, increasing the flow through the pulmonary valve --> Delayed pulmonary closure
  27. Budding yeast is characteristic of?
    Candida
  28. Molluscum contagiosum is characteristic of?
    • Poxvirus
    • Flesh-colored/ pearly papules with central umbilication
  29. Flesh-colored papules with central umbilicated dimples suggest?
    Molluscum contagiosum- Poxvirus
  30. Multinucleated giant cells are characteristic of?
    Herpes Simplex Virus eg shingles
  31. Necrotic keratinocytes in the epidermis suggest?
    Steven Johnson syndrome

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