BIO-1120: Chapter 5

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  1. Macromolecule
    a giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules, usually by a dehydration reaction; polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids are macromolecules
  2. Polymer
    a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together by covalent bonds
  3. Monomers
    the subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer
  4. Enzymes
    a marcomolecule serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction; most enzymes are proteins
  5. Dehydration Reaction
    a chemical reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule
  6. Hydrolysis
    a chemical reaction that breaks bonds between two molecules by the addition of water; functions in disassembly of polymers to monomers
  7. Carbohydrate
    a sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides)
  8. Monosaccharides
    the simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides; also called simple sugars, monosaccharides have molecular formulas that are generally some multiple of CH2O
  9. Disaccharide
    a double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage formed by a dehydration reaction
  10. Glycosidic Linkage
    a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction
  11. Polysaccharides
    a polymer of many monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions
  12. Starch
    a storage polysaccharide in plants, consisting entirely of glucose monomers joined by α glycosidic linkages
  13. Glycogen
    an extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch
  14. Cellulose
    a structural polysaccharide of plant cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by β glycosidic linkages
  15. Chitin
    a structural polysaccharide, consisting of amino sugar monomers, found in many fungal cell walls and in the exoskeletons of all arthropods
  16. Lipids
    any of a group of large biological molecules, including fats, phospholipids, and steroids, that mix poorly, if at all, with water
  17. Fat
    a lipid consisting of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule; also called a triacylglycerol or triglyceride
  18. Fatty Acid
    a carboxylic acid with a long carbon chain; fatty acids vary in length and in the number of location of double bonds; three fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form a fat molecule, also called triacylglycerol or triglyceride
  19. Triacylglycerol
    a lipid consisting of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule; also called a fat or triglyceride
  20. Saturated Fatty Acid
    a fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that are attached to the carbon skeleton
  21. Unsaturated Fatty Acid
    a fatty acid that has one or more double bonds between carbons in the hydrocarbon tail; such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached tot he carbon skeleton
  22. Trans Fat
    an unsaturated fat, formed artificially during hydrogenation of oils, containing one or more trans double bonds
  23. Phospholipid
    a lipid made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group; the hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids act as nonpolar, hydrophobic tails, while the rest of the molecule acts as a polar, hydrophilic head; phospholipids form bilayers that function as biological membranes
  24. Steroids
    a type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings with various chemical groups attached
  25. Cholesterol
    a steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids, such as many hormones
  26. Catalysts
    a chemical agent that selectively increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
  27. Polypeptide
    a polymer of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
  28. Protein
    a biologically function molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into a specific three-dimensional structure
  29. Amino Acid
    an organic molecule possessing both a carboxyl and an amino group; amino acids serve as the monomers of polypeptides
  30. Peptide Bond
    the covalent bond between the carboxyl group on one amino acid and the amino group on another, formed by a dehydration reaction
  31. Sickle-Cell Disease
    a recessively inherited human blood disorder in which a single nucleotide change in the β-globin gene causes hemoglobin to aggregate, changing red blood cell shape and causing multiple symptons in afflicted individuals
  32. Denaturation
    in proteins, a process in which a protein loses its native shape due to the disruption of a weak chemical bonds and interactions, thereby becoming biologically inaction; in DNA the separation of two such strands of the double helix; denaturation occurs under extreme (noncellular) conditions of pH, salt concentration, or temperature
  33. Chaperonins
    a protein complex that assists in the proper folding of other proteins
  34. Gene
    a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses)
  35. Nucleic Acid
    a polymer (polynucleotide) consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities; the two types are DNA and RNA
  36. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
    a nucleic acid moluecule, usually a double-stranded helix, in which each polynucleotide strand consists of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T); capable of being replicated and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins
  37. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
    a type of nucleic acid consisting of a polynucleotide made up of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis, in gene regulation, and as the genome of some viruses
  38. Gene Expression
    the process by which information encoded in DNA directs the synthesis of proteins or, in some cases, RNAs that are not translated into proteins and instead function as RNAs
  39. Polynucleotides
    a polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers in a chain; the nucleotides can be those of DNA or RNA
  40. Nucleotide
    the building block of nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and one or more phosphate groups
  41. Pyrimidine
    one of two types of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides, characterized by a six-membered ring; Cytosine (C), thymine (T) and uracil (U) are pyrimidines
  42. Purines
    one of two types of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides, characterized by a six-membered ring fused to a five-membered ring; Adenine (A) and guanine (G) are purines
  43. Deoxyribose
    the sugar component of DNA nucleotides, having one fewer hydroxyl group than ribose, the sugar component of RNA nucleotides
  44. Ribose
    the sugar component of RNA nucleotides
  45. Double Helix
    the form of native DNA< referring to its two adjacent antiparallel polynucleotide strands wound around an imaginary axis into a spiral shape
  46. Antiparallel
    referring to the arrangement of the sugar-phosphate backbones in a DNA double helix (they run in opposite 5' -> 3' directions)
  47. Genomics
    the systematic study of whole sets of genes (or other DNA) and their interactions within a species, as well as genome comparisons between species
  48. Proteomics
    the systematic study of sets of proteins and their properties, including their abundance, chemical modifications, and interactions
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BIO-1120: Chapter 5
2014-12-19 21:07:30
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