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assess for circulation to hand via both ulnar and radial arteries.
Pt squeezes hand in fist for 30 seconds. occlude both arteries with fingers, pt opens hand (should be blanched).
- release arteries, color should return in <7 seconds (positive)
- If negative, arteries are not patent, don't poke!
specific gravity of urine
the ratio of density of urine to density of water
- water =1.000
- SG = 1.002-1.03
higher SG= more concentrated urine
normal phosphorus level
foods with phosphorus in them
- Pumpkin, squash
- Pork, beef, chicken, organ meats
- whole-grain breads and cereals
- dairy products
Phosphorus has an inverse relationship with _________
actions of phosphorus
generation of bony tissue
maintenance of acid-base balance
storage and transfer of energy within body
Central Venous Pressure
direct measurement of the blood pressure in the right atrium and vena cava
Normal =4-11 cm H2O
Parathyroid and calcium/phosphate
hyperparathyroidism → ↑ bone resorption → hypercalcemia
↓ phosphate levels
softening of the cervix that occurs at the beginning of the second month of pregnancy. Probably sign of pregnancy.
nuchal rigidity when bending head down towards chest
autoimmune neuromuscular disorder
causes muscle weakness and paralysis
Levin tube v. Salem sump tube
Levin: single lumen, remove stomach contents or provide tube feeding
Salem sum: double lumen with air vent, decompression with intermittent continuous suction
important set-up and care for Salem sump air vent
do not clamp, maintain above level of stomach
if leaking, put 30 mL of air into air vent and irrigate main lumen with NS
goal of endotracheal tube
if endotracheal tube is needed for more than 10-14 days, use _____ instead