A&P Final Deck - good luck

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A&P Final Deck - good luck
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A&P Final Deck from Final Exam Study Guide
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  1. Anatomical Position
    • - Position with the body erect with the arms at the sides and the palms forward.
    • - Position is of importance in anatomy because it is the position of reference for anatomical nomenclature.
  2. Metabolism
    the sum of all chemical processes that occur in the body
  3. Homeostasis
    property of a system in which variables are regulated so that internal conditions remain stable and relatively constant
  4. Negative Feedback
    • system reverses a change in a controlled condition. ie BP increases...  
    • baroreceptors detect higher presure,
    • baroreceptors send nerve impulses to brain
    • brain sends nerve impulses to heart and blood vessels to slow down rate and dilate blood vessels
  5. Positive Feedback System
    • tends to strengthen or reinforce a change in one of the body's controlled conditions.  the effector produces a physiological response that adds to or reinforces the initial change in the controlled condition.  the action of a positive feedback system continues until it is interrupted by some mechanism.
    • child birth
    • CONTROLLED CONDITION
    • stretching of cervix
    • RECEPTORS
    • stretch sensitive nerve cells in cervix
    • input - nerve impulses
    • CONTROL CENTER - BRAIN
    • output - brain interprets input & releases oxytosin
    • EFFECTORS
    • muscles in the wall of the uteruscontract more forcefully
    • RESPONSE
    • babys body stretches the cervix more (interruption of cycle - the birth of baby decreases stretching of the cervix, thus breaking the positive feedback cycle)
    • increased stretching of the cirvix causes the release of more oxytocin, wh/ results in more stretching of the cervix.
  6. levels of structural organization
    • 1. Subatomic (electrons, protons and neutrons)
    • 2. Atomic - elemental (C, 0, Ne, Li)
    • 3. Molecular-compounds (NaCI)
    • 4. Organelles-found in cytoplasm - golgi bodies, mitochondria, lysosomes
    • 5. Cells - (smallest level that is considered living)
    • 6. Tissues - groups of cells
    • 7. Organs - heart, liver, kidneys, lungs
    • 8. Organ systems - digestive, skeletal, muscular
    • 9. Individual
    • 10. Population
    • 11. Communities
    • 12. Ecosystems
    • 13. Biosphere
  7. Subatomic
    electrons, protons and neutrons
  8. Atomic
    elemental (C, 0, Ne, Li)
  9. Molecular
    compounds (NaCI)
  10. Organelles
    found in cytoplasm - golgi bodies, mitochondria, lysosomes
  11. Cells
    smallest level that is considered living
  12. Tissues
    groups of cells
  13. Organs
    heart, liver, kidneys, lungs
  14. organ systems
    digestive, skeletal, muscular
  15. Individual
    me
  16. Population
    all of us
  17. Communities
    groups of us
  18. Ecosystems
    marsh
  19. Biosphere
    environment of the planet
  20. Distal
    further from the midline
  21. Proximal
    closer to the midline
  22. Lateral
    away from midline
  23. Medial
    towards the midline
  24. Anterior
    in front of
  25. Posterior
    in back of
  26. Superior
    closer to head
  27. Inferior
    further from the head
  28. Superior (alt)
    closer to the surface of the skin
  29. Deep
    further from the surface of the skin
  30. Ipsilateral
    same side of midline
  31. Contralateral
    opposite sides of the midline Planes
  32. Sagital
    vertical
  33. Midsagital
    vertical on the midline
  34. Parasagital
    vertical anywhere off midline
  35. Transverse
    cross sections- longitudinal- horizontal
  36. Oblique
    angled
  37. Frontal
    longitudinal from the side
  38. Cavities
    • 1. Cranial
    • 2. Vertebral
    • 3. Thoracic (pleural, pericardial, mediastinum)
    • 4. Abmoniopelvic (abdominal, pelvic)
  39. Thoracic Cavity
    contains 2 pleural, pericardial & mediastinum cavities
  40. Pleural Cavity
    potential space between the layers of the pleura that surround a lung
  41. Pericardial Cavity
    potential space between the layers of the pericardium that surrounds the heart
  42. mediastium
    central portion of thoracic cavity between the lungs: extends from sternum to vertebral column and from 1st rib to diaphragm; contains Heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, & several large blood vessels.
  43. cranial cavity
    brain
  44. vertebral cavity
    spinal cord & beginings of spinal nerves
  45. abdominopelvic cavity
    subdivided into abdominal & pelvic cavities
  46. abdominal cavity
    • 1. stomach
    • 2. spleen
    • 3. liver
    • 4. gallbladder
    • 5. small intestine
    • 6. most of large intestine
    • (the serous membrane is the peritoneum)
  47. pelvic cavity
    • 1. urinary bladder
    • 2. portions of large intestine
    • 3. internal organs of reproduction
  48. what separates the abdominal quadrants
    transumbilical line laterally & median line medially
  49. abdominal regions
    • R hypochondriac region
    • epigastric region
    • L hypochndriac region
    • MIDDLE
    • R lumbar region
    • umbilical region
    • L lumbar region
    • LOWER
    • R inguinal region
    • hypogastric region
    • L inguinal region
  50. Smallest living units of structure & function in the body?
    cell
  51. structure of the atom
    • Protons- Positively charged atom found in the nucleus
    • Neutrons- Neutrally charged atom found in the nucleus
    • Electrons- Negatively charged atom found in the outer orbitals
  52. Atomic Number
    Number of protons in the nucleus
  53. Valence electrons
    an electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
  54. valance shell calculation
    • LEVEL 1       (S)2    (P)NA  (D)NA  (F)NA
    • LEVEL 2       (S)2    (P)8    (D)NA  (F)NA
    • LEVEL 3       (S)2    (P)8    (D)10   (F)NA
    • LEVEL 4       (S)2    (P)8    (D)10   (F)14
  55. ionic bond
    transfer of electrons
  56. Covalent bond
    sharing of electrons
  57. Hydrogen bond
    two other elements that associate with hydrogen (water)
  58. Hydrophilic
    a mixture that dissolves in water
  59. Hydrophobic
    a mixture that doesn't dissolve in water
  60. What would influence the rate of a chemical reaction?
    Catalyst, temperature, concentration
  61. pH scale
    terms in which a solution's acidity or alkalinity is expresed (0 to 14)
  62. What pH of the blood does the homeostatic mechanisms of the body maintain
    7.35 to 7.45
  63. at what pH in the blood is it considered acidosis
    < 7.35
  64. at what pH in the blood is it considered alkalosis
    > 7.45
  65. white matter tracts
    highways for nerve impulse propagation located in spinal cord
  66. spinal cord gray matter
    site for integration (summin) of excitatory postsynaptic potentials & inhibitory postsyaptic potentials
  67. spinothalamic tract
    conveys nerve impulses for sensing pain, temp, itching, tickling, deep pressure and crude touch
  68. how do nerve impulses from sensory receptors propagate up the spinal cord to the brain?
    along 2 main routes on each side: the spinothalamic tract and the posterior column.
  69. posterior column
    • two tracts: the gracile fasciculus and cuneate fasciculus.
    • tracts convey nerve impulses for discriminative touch, light pressure, vibration, and conscious proprioception (the awareness of the positions and movements of muscles, tendons, and joints)
  70. How does motor output to skeletal muscles travel down the spinal cord?
    in two types of decsending pathways: direct & indirect.
  71. direct motor pathways include what tracts...
    • lateral corticospinal
    • anterior corticospinal
    • corticobulbar
    • (convey nerve impulses that originate in the cerebral cortex & are destined to cause voluntary movements of skeletal muscles)
  72. indirect motor pathways include what tracts...
    • rubrospinal
    • tectnospinal
    • vestibulospinal
    • lateral reticulospinal
    • medial reticulospinal
    • (convey nerve impulses from the brain stem to caus automatic movements and help coordinate body movements with visual stimuli)
    • also maintain skeletal muscle tone, play major role in equilibrium by regulating muscle tone in response to movements of the head.
  73. 4 groups of orgainic compounds
    • 1. carbohydrates
    • 2. lipids
    • 3. nucleic acids
    • 4. proteins
  74. nucleic acids
    • 1. huge organic molecules that contain C, H, N & P
    • 2. two types
    • a. deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
    • b. ribonucleic acid (RNA)
  75. carbohydrates
    • 1. sugars, glycogen, starches & cellulose
    • 2. 2-3% of body mass
    • 3. source of chemical E for generating ATP (needed to drive metabolic reactions) 


    glucose, a carbohydrate with the molecular formula C6H1206. Glucose is the basic form of fuel in living things. It is soluble and is transported by body fluids to all cells, where it is metabolized to release its energy.
  76. major groups of carbohydrates
    • 1. monosaccharides
    • 2. disaccharides
    • 3. plysaccharides
  77. lipids
    • 1. 18 to 20% body mass in lean adults
    • 2. contain C, H & O
    • 3. hydrophobic (insoluble to water)
    • (lipoproteins lipids that have joined w/ hydrophilic protein molecules)
    • a long chain of carbon atoms (from 4 to 24) with a carboxyl (—COOH) group at one end.
  78. fatty acids
    • 1. simplest lipid & used to synthesize triglycerides & phospholipids
    • 2. can be saturated or unsaturaded
    • The fatty acids in a fat may be all alike or they may all be different. They are bound to the glycerol molecule by a process that involves the removal of water.
  79. saturated fatty acid
    contains only single covalent bonds between carbon atoms of the hydrocarbon chain. because they lack double bonds, each carbon atom of the hydrocarbon chain is saturated w/ hydrogen atoms.
  80. unsaturated fatty acid
    contains one or more double covalent bonds between the carbon atoms of the hydrocarbon chain. thus, the fatty acid is not completely saturated w/ hydrogen atoms. it has a kink (bend) at the site of the double bond.
  81. mono-unsaturated fatty acid
    has just one double bond in the hydrocarbon chain
  82. poly-unsaturated fatty acid
    fatty acid has more than one double bond in the hydrocarbon chain. it contains more than one kink.
  83. Atoms essential for maintaining life:
    • 1. carbon (C 6)
    • 2. hydrogen (H 1)
    • 3. oxygen (O 8)
    • 4. nitrogen (N 6)
    • 5. phosphorus (P 15)
    • 6. calcium (Ca 20)
    • 7. sulfur (S 16)
  84. proteins
    • major molecules from which living things are constructed
    • 1. large molecules that contain C, H, O & N. normal adult maile 12 to 18% protein.
    • 2. much more complex than carbohydrates or lipids
    • 3. many roles but largely responsible for structure of body tissues
    • 4. enzymes are proteins that speed up biochemical reactions
    • 5. atibodies are proteins
    • 6. hormones that regulate homeostasis are proteins
  85. Levels of Structural Org in Protein
    • Primary: sequence of amino acids. unique sequence of amino acids linked by covalent peptide bonds to form polypeptide chain
    • Secondary: local regular structures i.e. strands. repeated twisting or folding of neighboring amino acids in the polypeptide chain. 2 common secondary structures - alpha helixes (clockwise spirals) & beta pleated sheets. the 2ndary structure of a protein is stabilized by hydrogen bonds.
    • tertiary structure: overall shape of a single polypeptide. 3D shape of a polypeptide chain. several tpes of bonds can contribute to a protein's tertiary structure. strongest bus least common bonds, s-s covalent bonds called disulfide bridges.
    • Quaternary structure: arrangement of several polypeptide chains.
  86. Enzymes
    • living cells, most catalysts are protein molecules. some consists of tow parts 1) apoenzyme 2) nonprotein portion cofactor
    • Enzymes are...
    • 1. highly specific
    • 2. very efficient
    • 3. subject to a variety of cellular controls
  87. cofactor
    the non-protein part of a 2 part enzyme. the 2nd part is apoenzyme. it may be metal or an organic molecule called coenzyme.
  88. coenzyme
    organic molecule cofactor. derived from vitamins. -ase
  89. adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
    • "energy currency" of living systems. transfers the energy liberated in exergonic catabolic reactions to power cellular activities that require energy (endergonic reactions).
    • consists of 3 phosphate groups attached to adenosine.
    • muscular contractions, movement of chromosomes during cell division, movement of structures w/in cells, transport of substances across cell membranes, & synthesis of larger molecules from smaller ones.
  90. Saturated
    This means that the liquid has dissolved all of the solute that is possible. If you add one teaspoon of sugar to iced tea, you've got an unsaturated solution. If you keep adding sugar to iced tea, you eventually get to the point where the rest of the sugar just sinks to the bottom. When this happens, it means that the solution is saturated, because no more sugar could dissolve.
  91. Unsaturated
    This means that if you were to add more solute to the liquid, it would keep dissolving. For example, if you take one teaspoon of salt and put it in a bucket of water, you've made an unsaturated solution. (In other words, if you added another teaspoon of salt, it would dissolve, too).
  92. cell membrane structure
    • 1. works as a barrier between the inner and outer surface of a cell. In animal cells, the plasma membrane is present in the outer most layer of the cell and in plant cell it is present just beneath the cell wall.
    • 2. primarily composed of proteins and lipids. While lipids help to give membranes their flexibility and proteins monitor and maintain the cell's chemical climate and assist in the transfer of molecules across the membrane.
    • 3 lipid bilayer is semi-permeable, which allows only selected molecules to diffuse across the membrane.
  93. cell membrane function
    • 1. separates the contents of the cell from its outside environment and it regulates what enters and exits the cell
    • 2. plays a vital role in protecting the integrity of the interior of the cell by allowing only selected substances into the cell and keeping other substances out
    • 3. serves as a base of attachment for the cytoskeleton in some organisms and the cell wall in others. Thus it supports the cell and helps in maintaining the shape of the cell.
  94. Passive Transport
    • Simple diffusion - a process whereby a substance passes through a membrane without the aid of an intermediary such as a integral membrane protein.
    • Osmosis - movement of solvent molecules through a partially permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration
    • Facilitated Diffusion - the process of spontaneous passive transport (as opposed to active transport) of molecules or ions across a biological membrane via specific integral proteins
  95. Active Transport
    • 1. Endocytosis
    • 2. Exocytosis
  96. Endocytosis
    an energy-using process by which cells absorb molecules (such as proteins) by engulfing them. It is used by all cells of the body because most substances important to them are large polar molecules that cannot pass through the hydrophobic plasma or cell membrane.
  97. Exocytosis
    • energy-consuming process by which a cell directs the contents of secretory vesicles out of the cell membrane and into the extracellular space. These membrane-bound vesicles contain soluble proteins to be secreted to the extracellular environment, as well as membrane proteins and lipids that are sent to become components of the cell membrane.
    • [1. secretory cells that liberate digestive enzmes, hormones, mucus or other secretons 2. nerve cells that release neurotransmitters]
  98. Hypotonic
    the total molar concentration of all dissolved solute particles is less than that of another solution or less than that of a cell. If concentrations of dissolved solutes are less outside the cell than inside, the concentration of water outside is correspondingly greater. When a cell is exposed to such hypotonic conditions, there is net water movement into the cell.
  99. Isotonic
    movement of water out of the cell is exactly balanced by movement of water into the cell
  100. Hypertonic
    the total molar concentration of all dissolved solute particles is greater than that of another solution, or greater than the concentration in a cell. If concentrations of dissolved solutes are greater outside the cell, the concentration of water outside is correspondingly lower. As a result, water inside the cell will flow outwards to attain equilibrium, causing the ceil to shrink. As cells lose water, they lose the ability to function or divide.
  101. Sequence events of protein synthesis
    • 1. DNA unzips
    • 2. M-RNA copies itself from exposed DNA bases
    • 3. Ribosomal proteins read m-RNA
    • 4. t-RNA adds the correct amino acids together to form the protein chain
  102. Sequence of events of cell-replication
    • Gl- interval of time from the end of mitosis to the beginning of S-phase
    • S phase- DNA replication
    • G2- interval of time from the end of S phase to the beginning of Mitosis
    • Mitotic Phase - Mitosis, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis.
  103. Mitosis
    • 1. Prophase
    • 2. Metaphase
    • 3. Anaphase
    • 4. Telophase
    • 5 Cytokinesis
  104. Prophase
    • 1. chromatin fibers condense into paired chromatids
    • 2. nucleolus & nuclear envelope disappear
    • 3. each centrosome moves to an opposite pole of the cell
  105. Metaphase
    centromeres of chromatid pairs line up at the metaphase plate
  106. Anaphase
    • 1. centromeres split
    • 2. identical sets of chromosomes move to opposite poles of cell
  107. Telophase
    • 1. nuclear envelopes & nucleoli reappear
    • 2. chromosomes resume chromatin form
    • 3. mitotic spindle diappears
  108. Cytokinesis
    • 1. cytoplasmic division
    • 2. contractile ring forms cleavage forrow around center of cell
    • 3. deviding cytoplasm into separate & equal portions
  109. 4 basic tissues
    • 1. Epithelium- covers body cavity structures; lines organs and glands (epithelial cells)
    • 2. Connective- protects/supports body & organs; most abundant; binds organs; immunity (fibroblasts, macrophages, plasma cells, mast cells, adipocytes, leukocytes)
    • 3. Nervous- made up of neurons (communicating; non-mitogenic) & neuroglia (supportive but don't communicate; mitogenic)
    • 4. Muscle- skeletal (voluntary), cardiac (involuntary)[intercalated discs, striations], smooth (involuntary) movement and support
  110. four basic tissues, examples of each type and the cells found in each
    • 1. Epithelium- covers body cavity structures; lines organs and glands (epithelial cells)
    • 2. Connective- most abundant; binds organs; immunity; store E as fat
    • 3. Nervous- made up of neurons (communicating; non-mitogenic) & neuroglia (supportive but don't communicate; mitogenic)
    • 4. Muscle- skeletal (voluntary), cardiac (involuntary), smooth (involuntary) movement and support, specialized for contraction and generation of force.
  111. cell junctions
    contact points between the plasma membranes of tissue cells
  112. 5 types of cell jucntions
    • 1. tight junction
    • 2. adherens junction
    • 3. gap junctions
    • 4. desmosomes
    • 5. hemidesmosomes
  113. Tight Junction
    the interface between masses of cells and the lumen (cavity or space)
  114. Adherens Junctions
    provide strong mechanical attachments between adjacent cells
  115. Gap Junctions
    intercellular channels some 1.5 2 nm in diameter. These permit the free passage between the cells of ions and small molecules
  116. Desmosomes
    localized patches that hold two cells tightly together. They are common in epithelia (e.g., the skin). Desmosomes are attached to intermediate filaments of keratin in the cytoplasm.
  117. Hemidesmosomes
    resemble desmosomes, but do not link adjacent cells. look like 1/2 of a desmosomes. transmembrane glycoprotein is integrins (not cadherins as in desmosomes).
  118. Describe glands: unicellular, multicellular, merocrine, apocrine, holocrine
    • 1. unicellular- a single secretory cell, such as a mucinogen-secreting goblet cell.
    • 2. multicellular- composed of many cells.
    • 3. merocrine- pancreatic acinar cells
    • 4. apocrine- fat droplet secretion by mammary gland
    • 5. holocrine- sebaceous glands for skin and nose
  119. structure and functions of the skin and its exocrine glands
    • Epidermis- the outermost layer
    • Dermis- the inner layer that contains sweat glands, sebaceous glands & hair follicles
    • Subcutaneous layer- under the dermis and made up of connective tissue and fat
  120. Functions of the skin
    • 1. Provides a protective barrier against mechanical, thermal and physical injury and hazardous substances
    • 2. Prevent loss of moisture
    • 3. Reduces harmful effects of UV radiation
    • 4. Acts as a sensory organ (touch, detects temperature)
    • 5. An immune organ to detect infections
    • 6. Production of vitamin C.
  121. Exocrine glands
    • 1. Sweat glands- produce sweat that travels via sweat ducts to openings in the epidermis called pores. They play a role in temperature regulation
    • 2. Hair follicles- pits in which hair grows, which also plays a role in temperature regulation
    • 3. Sebaceous glands- produce sebum (an oil) to keep hairs free from dust and bacteria.
  122. thick skin
    has a thinner dermis than thin skin, and does not contain hairs, sebaceous glands or apocrine sweat glands. It's only foundin areas where there is a lot of abrasion (fingertips, palms and the soles ofthe feet)
  123. thin skin
    has a thicker dermis than thick skin, which makes the skin easier to suture if it gets damaged. Thin skin also has fewermerocrine sweat glands.
  124. order of the epidermal strata; cells in each strata.
    • 1. Stratumcomeum- langerhans cells
    • 2. Stratumlucidum- langerhans cells
    • 3. Stratumgranulosum- langerhans cells
    • 4. Stratumsplnosum- langerhans cells
    • 5. Stratumbasale- langerhans cells; melanocytes; merkel cells
  125. order of the phases of deep wound healing
    • 1. Inflammatoryresponse- sounds general alarm
    • 2. WBC,T+B cells, macrophages
    • 3. Platelets-form platelet plug
    • 4. Neutrophils-help with plug
    • 5. Monocytes
    • 6. Clot over time becomes a scab to provide protection
    • 7. Damaged vessels repair themselves
    • 8. Proliferation-growth
    • 9. Collagen fibers are dense
    • 10. Lose a lot of pacinian and meisner corpuscles
    • 11. Lose blood vessels
    • 12. Maturation-scab comes off & repair is complete
  126. Sensory receptors...
    • are dendrites of sensory neurons specialized for receiving specific kinds of stimuli.
    • the dendrites are encapsulated nerve endings whose terminal ends are enclosed in a capsule of connective tissue.
  127. sensory receptors classified by microscopic structure...
    • 1. free nerve endings of 1st order sensory neurons
    • 2. encapsulated nerve endings of 1st order sensory neurons
    • 3. separate cells that synapse synapse w/ 1st order sensory neurons
  128. free nerve endings sensory receptors
    • bare dendrites; lack any structural specializations that can be seen under a microscope.
    • (pain, temp, tickle, itch, & some touch)
  129. encapsulated nerve endings sensory receptors
    sensory receptors for other somatic & visceral sensations, & some touch sensations
  130. separate cells sensory receptors
    • sensory receptors for some special senses are specialized & synapse  w/ sensory neurons.
    • (hair cells for hearing & equilibrium in the inner ear, gustatory receptor cells in taste buds, & photoreceptors in the retina)
  131. Posterior column - medial lemniscus
    a sensory pathway of the central nervous system that conveys localized sensations of fine touch and vibrations.
  132. Anteriolateral spinothalamic
    a sensory pathway from the skin to the thalamus. From the ventral posterolateral nucleus in the thalamus, sensory information is relayed upward to the somatosensory cortex of the postcentral gyrus.
  133. Trigeminothalamic
    serves as a touch and vibration pathway from the face, head and neck. After receiving input from Meissner's and Pacinian corpuscles, first order neurons enter the pons and synapse in the principal trigeminal nucleus.
  134. Corticospinal
    a small bundle of descending fibers that connect the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord. It is usually small, varying inversely in size with the lateral corticospinal tract, which is the main part of the corticospinal tract. It lies close to the anterior median fissure, and is present only in the upper part of the medulla spinalis; gradually diminishing in size as it descends, it ends about the middle of the thoracic region.
  135. Tectospinal
    a nerve pathway that coordinates head and eye movements. The tectospinal tract connects the midbrain tectum and the spinal cord. It is responsible for motor Impulses that arise from one side of the midbrain to muscles on the opposite side of the body. The function of the tectospinal tract is to mediate reflex postural movements of the head in response to visual and auditory stimuli.
  136. direct motor pathways
    a neuronal circuit within the central nervous system (CNS) through thebasal ganglia which facilitates theinitiation and execution of voluntary movement.
  137. indirect motor pathway
    a neuronal circuit through the basal ganglia and several associated nuclei within the central nervous system (CNS) which helps to prevent unwanted muscle contractions from competing with voluntary movements.
  138. Functions of the skeleton...
    • 1. movement
    • 2. support
    • 3. protection
    • 4. hemopoesis (RBC/WBC/Platelets)
    • 5. mineral homeostasis (Ca++, PTH - chemo receptors)
    • 6. energy storage (yellow marrow in shaft of long bone - attipose tissue)
  139. Major Skeletal System Divisions
    • 1. Axial
    • 2. Apendicular
  140. Axial System
    • All the bones through the midline of the body.
    • bones of the skull, vertebral column, sternum & ribs
    • 80 bones
  141. Appendicular Skeleton
    • Upper & lower limbs (extremities or appendages), plus the bones forming the girdles that connect the limbs to the axial skeleton
    • (appendic = to hang on to)
    • 126 bones
  142. Total number of bones
    • 206
    • (all articulate except for Hoid bone)
  143. classification of bone
    • 1. longbone
    • 2. shortbone
    • 3. flat bone
    • 4. irregular
    • 5. sesamoid
  144. sesamoid bone
    bones that develop in specific tendons; i.e. patella
  145. Flatbone
    bones of the skull, sternum,pelvis and ribs
  146. Long bone
    humerus, femur, tibia,fibia
  147. Short bone
    cuboidal in shape, located only in the foot (tarsals) and wrist (carpals)
  148. Irregular bone
    bones of the face and vertebral column
  149. osteoprogenitor cells
    unspecialized bone stem cells. only bone cells to undergo cell division; the resuting cells develop into osteoblasts.
  150. osteoblasts
    • blasts -> build bone
    • building cells. synthesize and secrete collagen fibers and other organic components needed to build the extracellular matrix of bone tissue, and they initiate calcification.
  151. osteocytes
    mature bone cells, are the main cells in bone tissue and maintain its daily metabolism. ie exchange of nutrients & waste with the blood.no cell devision
  152. osteoclasts
    • clasts -> break down
    • huge cellsconcentrated in the endosteum - on the side that faces the bone surface - deeply folded into a ruffled border. Causes RESORPTION
  153. hormones involved in calcium homeostasis: CT, PTH, Calcitriol, estrogen, IFGs
    • Bones play an important role in regulating blood calcium levels, which must be maintained within narrow limits for functions such as muscle contraction and membrane potentials to occur normally.
    • hypocalcemia: deficiency of blood calcium
    • hypercalcemia: excess of blood calcium
    • Bone is the major storage site for calcium in the body, and movement of calcium into and out of bone helps to determine blood calcium levels.
    • Calcium moves into bone as osteoblasts build new bone and out of bone as osteoclasts break down bone.
    • The hormones parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin help regulate blood calcium levels.
    • Calcitonin, secreted by the thyroid gland inhibits osteoclasts and stimulates osteoblasts, thus decreasing blood calcium levels.
    • Parathyroid hormone is secreted by the parathyroid glands, which are on the posterior side of the thyroid. Parathyroid hormone inhibits osteoblasts, stimulates osteoclasts, reduces the output of calcium by the kidneys and promotes the absorption of calcium by the small intestines, thus increasing blood calcium levels.
  154. types of joints
    • 1. Ball & Socket
    • 2. Hinge Joint
    • 3. Gliding
    • 4. Pivot
    • 5. Condyle
    • 6. Saddle joint
  155. Ball & Socket
    allows bending in several directions without slipping, creating a highly stable, strong joint, (humerus, femur)
  156. Hinge Joint
    allows for stable flexion and extension without sliding or deviation (elbow)
  157. Gliding
    allow for smooth movement in several directions along a plane or other smooth surface. The articulation is like two plates sliding across each other. An example would be the carpal bones of the wrist,which form a gliding synovial joint.
  158. Pivot
    a joint in which rotational motion occurs without gliding movement. This type of joint allows for turning motions without sideways displacement or bending, (humerus, femur)
  159. Condyle
    an irregular surface where the bones move past one another. This type of joint is like two bowls nested together
  160. Saddlejoint
    This sort of articulation allows bending motion in several directions without sliding. The carpal-metacarpal joint of the thumb is an example of a saddle synovial joint.
  161. Synovial fluid
    found in the cavities of synovial joints and it reduces the friction between the articular cartilage during movement.
  162. types of movement in synovial joints
    • 1. flexion
    • 2. lateral flexion
    • 3. extension
    • 4. hyperextension
    • 5. abduction
    • 6. adduction
    • 7. circumduction
    • 8. rotation
    • 9. special (elevation, depression, protraction, retraction,inversion, eversion, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, supination, pronation, opposition)
  163. flexion
    decrease in angle between bones. decrease in angle between articulating bones, usually in sagittal plane.
  164. lateral flexion
    movement of trunk in frontal plane
  165. extension
    increase in angle between articulating bones, usually in sagittal plane
  166. hyperextension
    extension beyond anatomical position
  167. abduction
    movement of bone away from midline, usually in frontal plane
  168. adduction
    movement of bone toward midline, usually in frontal plane
  169. circumduction
    flexion, abduction, extension, adduction, and rotation in succession (or in the opposite order); distal end of body part moves in circle.
  170. rotation
    movement of the bone around longitudinal axis; in limbs, may be medial (toward midline) or lateral (away from midline).
  171. types of muscle
    • 1. skeletal (voluntary)
    • 2. smooth
    • 3. cardiac involuntary
  172. Skeletal Muscle
    voluntary; S.N.S. - allow movement by attaching to bones; It controls voluntary movements which are consciously controlled. They are made up of cylindrical fibers with the nucleus of each cell being toward the edge of each striated cell.
  173. Smooth Muscle
    Involuntary; A.N.S. -composed of elongated, spindle shaped cells. The nucleus is centrally located and there are no striations. This type of muscle is located throughout the body most commonly found in the walls of blood vessels, urinary bladder and the digestive system.
  174. Cardiac Muscle
    Involuntary; A.N.S.-roughly quadrangular in shape and have a single central nucleus. The cells form a network of branching fibers and are cross striated. They are found in the heart.
  175. Anatomy of the Sarcomere
    • 1. An entire array of thick and thin filaments between the Z disks
    • 2. The thick filaments produce the dark A band
    • 3. The thin filaments extend in each direction from the Z disk. Where they do not overlapthe thick filaments, they create the light I band
    • 4. The H zone is that portion of the A band where the thick and thin filaments do not over lap
    • 5. The M line runs through the exact center of the sarcomere. Molecules of the giant protein, titin, extend from the M line to the Z disk. One of its functions is to provide elasticity to the muscle. It also provides a scaffold for the assembly of a precise number of myosin molecules in the thick filament (294 in one case). It may also dictate the number of actin molecules in the thin filaments.
  176. Sequence the events of skeletal muscle contraction
    • 1. An electrical signal (action potential) travels down a nerve, causing it to release a chemical message (neurotransmitter) into a small gap between the nerve cell and muscle cell. This gap is called the synapse.
    • 2. The neurotransmitter crosses the gap, binds to a protein (receptor) on the muscle-cell membrane and causes an action potential in the muscle cell.
    • 3. The action potential rapidly spreads along the muscle cell and enters the cell through the T-tubule.
    • 4. The action potential opens gates in the muscle's calcium store (sarcoplasmicreticulum).
    • 5. Calcium ions flow into the sarcoplasm, which is where the actin and myosin filaments are.
    • 6. Calcium ions bind to troponin-tropomyosin molecules located in the grooves of the actin filaments. Normally, the rod-like tropomyosin molecule covers the sites on actin where myosin can form cross-bridges.
    • 7. Upon binding calcium ions, troponin changes shape and slides tropomyosin out of the groove, exposing the actin-myosin binding sites.
    • 8. Myosin interacts with actin by cycling cross-bridges, as described previously. The muscle thereby creates force, and shortens.
    • 9. After the action potential has passed, the calcium gates close, and calcium pumps located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum remove calcium from the cytoplasm.
    • 10. As the calcium gets pumped back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum, calcium ions come off the troponin.
    • 11. The troponin returns to its normal shape and allows tropomyosin to cover the actin-myosin binding sites on the actin filament.
    • 12. Because no binding sites are available now, no cross-bridges can form, and the muscle relaxes.
  177. order of the reactions which produce ATP in skeletal muscle
    • 1. adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is split into adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and phosphate to supply the energy for muscle contraction.
    • 2. free energy released by the ATP when the phosphate is split off is transferred to the heads on the myosin filaments.
    • 3. heads move and store potential energy in their new position. When the heads interact withactin, the energy is used to slide the filaments past one another transferring the energy into movement (kinetic energy).
  178. Neuron cells
    an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals. These signals between neurons occur via synapses, specialized connections with other cells. Neurons can connect to each other to form neural networks. Neurons are the core components of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord and the ganglia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) which comprises the central nervous system (CNS).
  179. Neuroglia cells
    non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons in the brain and peripheral nervous system.
  180. types of neuroglia cells
    • 1. astrocytes
    • 2. microglia
    • 3. oligodendrocytes
    • 4. schwann cells
  181. astrocytes
    • 1. star shaped that wrap around presynaptic terminals of a group of functionally related axons
    • 2. 2 types - 1 found in gray matter & the other in white matter
    • 3. takes up chemicals and then releases them back to axons, helping synchronize activity of axons, enabling them to send messages in waves
    • 4. removes waste when neurons die and controls amt. of blood flow to each area of the brain
    • 5. important for info processing
  182. microglia
    • 1. VERY small cells
    • 2. remove waste as well as viruses, fungi, and other microorganisms
    • 3. function like part of immune system
  183. oligodendrocytes
    • 1. located in brain and spinal cord
    • 2. specialized types of glia that form and maintian the myelin sheath around CNS axons.
  184. schwann cells
    • 1. located in peripheral nervous system
    • 2. specialized types of glia that build the myelin sheaths that surround and insulate certain veterbrate actions
  185. Name the tracts... (brain)
    • 1. association
    • 2. commisural
    • 3. projection
  186. Association Tract
    communication to another bundle in same place
  187. Commisural Tract
    communication to another bundle in opposite hemisphere
  188. Projection Tract
    communication from/to white to/from cerebrial cortex
  189. Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials (ESPSs)
    • 1. a graded potential that makes the membrane potential less negative or more positive, thus making the postsynaptic cell more likely to have an action potential.
    • 3. caused by the influx of Na+or Ca*2 from the extracellular space into the neuron or muscle cell. when the presynaptic neuron has an action potential, Ca++ enters the axon terminal via voltage-dependent calcium channels and causes exocytosis of synaptic vesicles, causing neurotransmitter to be released.
    • 4. transmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft and activates ligand-gated ion channels that mediate the EPSP. the amplitude of the EPSP is directly proportional to the number of synaptic vesicles that were released. if the EPSP is not large enough to trigger an action potential, the membrane subsequently repolarizes to its resting membrane potential. this shows the temporary and reversible nature of graded potentials.
  190. Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials (IPSPs)
    • 1. a graded potential that makes the membrane potential more negative, and make the postsynaptic cell less likely to have an action potential
    • 2. hyperpolarization of membranes is caused by influx of CI- or efflux of K+. as with EPSPs, the amplitude of the IPSP is directly proportional to the number of synaptic vesicles that were released.
  191. event sequences of an action potential
    • 1. a stimulus is received by the dendrites of a nerve cell. this causes the Na*channels to open. if the opening is sufficient to drive the interior potential from -70 mV up to -55 mV, the process continues.
    • 2. having reached the action threshold, more Na* channels (sometimes called voltage-gated channels) open. the Na*influx drives the interior of the cell membrane up to about +30 mV. the process to this point is called depolarization.
    • 3. Na*channels close and the K* channels open. since the K* channels are much slower to open, the depolarization has time to be completed. having both Na* and K* channels open at the same time would drive the system toward neutrality and prevent the creation of the action potential.
    • 4. with the K* channels open, the membrane begins to repolarize back toward its rest potential.
    • 5. repolarization typically overshoots the rest potential to about -90 mV. this is called hyperpolarization and would seem to be counter productive, but it is actually important in the transmission of information. hyperpolarization prevents the neuron from receiving another stimulus during this time, or at least raises the threshold for any new stimulus. part of the importance of hyperpolarization is in preventing any stimulus already sent up an axon from triggering another action potential in the opposite direction. in other words, hyperpolarization assures that the signal is proceeding in one direction.
    • 6. after hyperpolarization, the Na+/K+ pump eventually brings the membrane back to its resting state of -70 mV.
  192. Spinal cord
    • a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem
    • 1. Cervical- 8 segments; C1-C8
    • 2. Thoracic-12 segments; T1-T12
    • 3. Lumbar-5 segments; L1-L5
    • 4. Sacral-5 segments; S1-S5
    • 5. Coccyx-1 segment
  193. Spinal Nerves
    • a mixed nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body
    • in the human there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, one oneach side of the vertebral column
  194. List the Brain Meninges
    • 1. Duramater
    • 2. Piamater
    • 3. Arachnoidmater
  195. Dura mater
    thick, durable membrane,closest to the skull. it is the outermost part, comprised of loosely arranged fibroelastic layers of cells with no extracellular collagen and significant extracellular spaces.
  196. Pia mater
    very thin membrane composed of fibrous tissue covered on its outer surface by a sheet of flat cells thought to be impermeable to fluid. the pia mater is pierced by blood vessels to the brain and spinal cord,and its capillaries nourish the brain.
  197. Arachnoid mater
    inverts the spinal cord loosely. continuous with the cerebral arachnoid above, it traverses the foramen magnum and descends to about the S2 vertebral level.
  198. Nucleus
    membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells in the CNS. it contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes.
  199. Ganglion
    nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the peripheral nervous system(PNS). Cells found in a ganglion are called ganglion cells, though this term is also sometimes used to refer specifically to retinal ganglion cells.
  200. Ganglion vs Nucleus
    ganglion refers to a cluster of neuronal cell bodies located in the PNS. ganglia are closely associated with cranial and spinal nerves. by contrast, a nucleus is a cluster of neuronal cell bodies located in the CNS.
  201. Reflex Arc
    • made up of five basic elements:
    • 1. receptor
    • 2. sensory neuron
    • 3. center
    • 4. motor neuron
    • 5. effector
    • The receptor hosts the dendrite of the sensory neuron as well as the initiation of the entire process, the initiation of nerve impulse. The sensory neuron is responsible for relaying the impulse through the posterior root of the central nervous system, where the center is located. One or two interneurons, or association neurons are involved in this process. At this point, the arc is made, and the process of synapse permits other parts ofthe body to receive the necessary impulses. The effector organ, which is almost always a skeletal muscle, then receive the required information through the impulses sent via a motor neuron. The response initiated by the effector organ is known as a reflex action. This is what most people refer to as reflexes.
  202. Contralateral
    located on or affecting or relating to the opposite side of the body
  203. Ipsilateral
    Located on or affecting or relating to the same side of the body. For example, many somatic reflexes, such as stretch reflexes, receive a stimulus on one side of the bodyand the motor response whichfollows is returned to muscles on the same side of the body
  204. Intersegmental
    A polysynaptic neuron pathway which involves sensory impulses being received in one segment of the spinal cord and then stimulating interneurons which route the sensory information to motor neurons in both superior and inferior segments of the spinal cord in order to permit innervation of a variety of muscles in the reflex action.
  205. Nerve plexus
    large extensions of ventral rami
  206. Major Plexuses
    • 1. Cervical Plexus
    • 2. Brachial Plexus
    • 3. Lumbar Plexus
    • 4. Sacral Plexus
  207. Cirvical Plexus Nerve(s)
    1. Phrenic
  208. Brachial Plexus Nerve(s)
    • 1. Musculocutaneous Nerve
    • 2. Axillary Nerve
    • 3. Median Nerve
    • 4. Radial Nerve
    • 5. Ulnar Nerve
  209. Lumbar Plexus Nerve(s)
    • 1. Femoral Nerve
    • 2. Obturator Nerve
  210. Sacral Plexus Nerve(s)
    • 1. Sciatic Nerve
    • 2. Tibial Nerve
  211. Plexuses Components
    • 1. Trunks
    • 2. Cords
    • 3. Roots
    • 4. Nerves
  212. Phrenic nerve
    nerve that originates in the neck (C3-C5) and passes down between the lung and heart to reach the diaphragm. it is important for breathing, as it passes motor information to the diaphragm and receives sensory information from it.
  213. Basal nuclei
    comprised of multiple subcortical nuclei, in the brains of vertebrates, which are situated at the base of the forebrain. they are strongly interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and brainstem, as well as several other brain areas.
  214. Blood Brain Barrier
    highly selective permeable barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain extracellular fluid in the CNS. it allows for the passage of water, some gases and lipid soluble molecules by passive diffusion, as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function.
  215. Pituitary Gland
    a pea-sized gland that sits in a protective bony enclosure called the sella turcica. it synthesizes and secretes hormones.
  216. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
    a clear colorless bodily fluid found in the brain and spine. produced in the choroid plexus of the brain. acts as a cushion or buffer for the brain's cortex, providing a basic mechanical and immunological protection to the brain inside the skull, and it serves a vital function in cerebral auto regulation of cerebral blood flow.
  217. Decussation (discussion)
    nerves cross from one side of the brain to the other, and typically the nerves from the left side of the body decussate to the right side of the brain and the nerves from the right side of the body decussate to the left brain, however depending on the function of the nerves the level of decussation is variable.
  218. Projection tract
    bundles of nerve fibers in the CNS
  219. number, name, and function of the twelve pairsof cranial nerves
    • I. Olfactory: Smell
    • II. Optic: Vision
    • III. Oculomotor: Eye Movement
    • IV. Trochlear: Eye Movement (down/in)
    • V. Trigeminal: chewing muscles
    • VI. Abducens: eye movement (abducting eyes)
    • VII. Facial: face & anterior 2/3 of tongue
    • VIII. Vestibulocochlear or Acuoustic: Hearing & equilibrium
    • IX. Glossopharyngeal: posterior 1/3 tongue (taste buds & production of saliva)
    • X. Vagus: smooth muscle (digestion/defecation slow heart)
    • XI. Accessory: spinal accessory - swallowing & head movement
    • XII. Hypoglossal: tongue during speech & swallowing (12th ice cream cone)
  220. Which cranial nerve has its own dermatome?
    cranial nerve V has its own dermatone.
  221. Which cranial nerves are mixed?
    • III - Oculomotor
    • V - Trigeminal
    • VII - Facial
    • IX - Accessory
    • X - Vagus
  222. Which cranial nerves are special sensory?
    • I - Olfactory
    • II - Optic
    • VII - Facial
    • VIII - Vestibulocochlear or Acoustic
    • IX - Accessory
  223. Somatic NS
    conducts impulses from the PNS to the skeletal muscles of the body
  224. Autonomic NS
    conducts impulses from the PNS to cardiac and smooth muscles and glands
  225. Parasympathetic
    conserves energy; promotes "housekeeping" functions during rest
  226. Sympathetic
    mobilizes body systems during activity "fight or flight"
  227. Preganglionic neurons
    neurons whose cell bodies lie in the central nervous system and whose efferent fibers terminatein the autonomic ganglia
  228. Postganglionic neurons
    neurons whose cell bodies lie in the autonomic ganglia and whose purpose is to relay impulses beyond the ganglia
  229. Eyes
    • 3 layers (tunics)
    • 1. Fibrous layer (sclera& cornea)
    • 2. Vascular layer (choroid, cilliary body & iris)
    • 3. Sensory layer (epithelial retina, neuronal retina; ganglion, bi-polar cells & photoreceptors; cones & rods).
    • The function of the eye is to transmit messages from what the eye sees to the brain.
  230. Ear
    • 3 layers (outer, middle, inner)
    • 1. Outer; pinna, ear canal & external auditory meatus
    • (function of the outer ear is to funnel sounds)
    • 2. Middle; ear drum (tympanic membrane), ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes); auditory tube that connects to nasal pharynx
    • (function of the middle ear is processing sound waves)
    • 3. Inner, cochlea, vestibula, semicircular canals
    • (function of the inner ear is hearing and equilibrium)
  231. Nose
    Nasal conci (folds) that increase surface area; olfactory receptor cells- environmental - neuronal impulse
  232. Tongue
    • contains taste buds found on the tongue which are known as papillae.
    • four different kinds of papillae
    • 1. circumvallate (100-300)
    • 2. foliate papillae found on the side of the tongue
    • 3. fungiform found on the posterior surface of the tongue
    • 4. filiform found on the anterior surface of the tongue
  233. Mechanoreceptors
    • sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion. normally there are four main types in glabrous skin:
    • 1. pacinian corpuscles
    • 2. meissner's corpuscles
    • 3. merkel's discs
    • 4. ruffini endings
    • There arealso mechanoreceptors in hairy skin, and the hair cells in the cochlea are the most sensitive mechanoreceptors, transducing air pressure waves into nerve signals sent to the brain. In the periodontal ligament, there are some mechanoreceptors, which allow the jaw to relax when biting down on hard objects; the mesencephalic nucleus is responsible for this reflex.
  234. Thermoreceptors
    sensory receptor, or more accurately the receptive portion of a sensory neuron, that codes absolute and relative changes intemperature
  235. Chemoreceptors
    sensory receptor that transduces a chemical signal into an action potential. in more general terms, a chemosensor detects certain chemical stimuli in the environment.
  236. which sensory pathways synapse in the thalamus?
    • 1. spinothalamic tract
    • 2. lateral spinothalamic tract
    • 3. anterior (or ventral) spinothalamic tract
  237. cholinergic neurons
    • release the neurotransmitter ACh. in the ANS they include:
    • 1. all sympathetic & parasympathetic preganglionic neurons
    • 2. sympathetic post ganglionic neurons that innervate most seat glands
    • 3. all parasympathetic postganglionic neurons
  238. two types of cholinergic receptors, both of wh/ bind ACh
    • 1. nocotinic
    • 2. muscarinic
  239. nicotinic receptors
    present in plasma membrane of dendrites & cell bodies of both sympathetic & parasympathetic postganglionic neurons, the plasma membranes of chromaffin cells of the adrenal medullae, & in motor end plate at the neuromuscular junction.
  240. muscarinic receptors
    present in the plasma membranes of all effectors (smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, & glands) innervated by parasympathetic postganglionic axons. in addition, most sweat glands receive their innervation from cholinergic sympathetic postganglionic neurins and possess muscarinic receptors
  241. nicotinic vs muscarinic receptors
    nicotine does not activate muscarinic receptors & muscarine does not activate nicotinic receptors. ACh wil activate both muscarinic receptors and nicotinic receptors.
  242. adrenergic neurons
    in the ANS they release norepinephrine (NE), also known as noradrenalin. most sympathetic postganglionic neurons are. they will bind both norepinephrine and epinephrine.
  243. What are the two main types of adrenergic receptors?
    alpha & beta. they are found on visceral effectors innervated by most sympathetic postganglionic axons.
  244. activation of a1 & b1 receptors generally produce ______.
    excitation
  245. activation of a2 & b2 receptors generally produce ______.
    inhibition of effector tissues
  246. activation of b3 receptors generally produce ______.
    thermogenesis (heat production)
  247. _____ stimulates alpha receptors more strongly than beta receptors; _____ is a potent stimulator of both alpha & beta receptors.
    Norepinephrine, epinephrine
  248. sequence of events of protein synthesis
    • 1. transcription
    • 2. translation
  249. transcription
    occurs in nucleus; making RNA from DNA template
  250. translation
    occurs in cytoplasm; making protein from mRNA template
  251. transcription (detailed)
    • occurs in nucleus; making RNA from DNA template
    • 1. DNA strand unzips
    • 2. Transcription factors bind to DNA preparing for...
    • 3. RNA polymerase to bind
    • 4. ATP provides energy & starts to synthesis
    • 5. RNA polymerase synthesizes RNA template from DNA strand
    • 6. alternative splicing cuts out introns & splices together / keeps exons
  252. translation (detailed)
    • occurs in cytoplasm; making protein from mRNA template
    • 1. mRNA attaches to small ribosomal submit
    • 2. initiator + RNAbinds to codon on mRNA where translation begins; AUG (on mRNA) is codon for 1st amino acid
    • 3. large ribosomal subunit attaches to small ribo submit - mRNA complex creating functional ribosome
    • 4. another tRNA w/ A acid pairs w/ 2nd mRNA codon
    • 5. peptide bond is made between the 2 amino acids
    • 6. 2 peptide protein sttaches to tRNA at A site
    • 7. codon shift; 2 peptide protein shifts to P site; another tRNA attaches to A
    • 8. synthesis ends at "Stop" codon at A site; tRNA vacates P; ribosome splits into large + small subunits.
  253. Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid (DNA)
    Genetic material for the database of information
  254. Ribo Nucleic Acid (RNA)
    Transfers the DNA message into a messenger wh/ then goes out into the cytoplasm and in the ribosome under the construction of RRNA builds the proteins
  255. Three Different Types of RNA
    • 1. TRNA
    • 2. MRNA
    • 3. RRNA
  256. Transfer RNA (TRNA)
    type of RNA wh/ helps undergo the process of transcription. transcribes the message from the DNA to the RNA
  257. MRNA
    type of RNAtakes the message from the TRNA brings it out into the cytoplasm into the ribosome
  258. RRNA
    type of RNAfinal componenet of the RNA that takes the message from the MRNA to put together the amino acids in the polypeptides and the peptide bonds that sequence amino acids and builds the protein
  259. connective tissue composition
    • two basic elements
    • 1. extracellular matrix
    • 2. cells
  260. extracellular matrix
    • material located between its widely spaced cells. consists of:
    • 1. protein fibers
    • 2. ground substance
  261. extracellular fibers found in the extracellular matrix...
    secreted by the connective tissue cells and account for many of the functional properties of the tissue in addition to controlling the surrounding watery environment via specific proteoglycan molecules.
  262. types of connective tissue cells
    • 1. fibroblasts
    • 2. macrophages
    • 3. plasma
    • 4. mast
  263. IGF
    insulin-like growth factor. stimulate osteoblasts wh/ helps grow bone.

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