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- - Position with the body erect with the arms at the sides and the palms forward.
- - Position is of importance in anatomy because it is the position of reference for anatomical nomenclature.
the sum of all chemical processes that occur in the body
property of a system in which variables are regulated so that internal conditions remain stable and relatively constant
- system reverses a change in a controlled condition. ie BP increases...
- baroreceptors detect higher presure,
- baroreceptors send nerve impulses to brain
- brain sends nerve impulses to heart and blood vessels to slow down rate and dilate blood vessels
Positive Feedback System
- tends to strengthen or reinforce a change in one of the body's controlled conditions. the effector produces a physiological response that adds to or reinforces the initial change in the controlled condition. the action of a positive feedback system continues until it is interrupted by some mechanism.
- child birth
- CONTROLLED CONDITION
- stretching of cervix
- stretch sensitive nerve cells in cervix
- input - nerve impulses
- CONTROL CENTER - BRAIN
- output - brain interprets input & releases oxytosin
- muscles in the wall of the uteruscontract more forcefully
- babys body stretches the cervix more (interruption of cycle - the birth of baby decreases stretching of the cervix, thus breaking the positive feedback cycle)
- increased stretching of the cirvix causes the release of more oxytocin, wh/ results in more stretching of the cervix.
levels of structural organization
- 1. Subatomic (electrons, protons and neutrons)
- 2. Atomic - elemental (C, 0, Ne, Li)
- 3. Molecular-compounds (NaCI)
- 4. Organelles-found in cytoplasm - golgi bodies, mitochondria, lysosomes
- 5. Cells - (smallest level that is considered living)
- 6. Tissues - groups of cells
- 7. Organs - heart, liver, kidneys, lungs
- 8. Organ systems - digestive, skeletal, muscular
- 9. Individual
- 10. Population
- 11. Communities
- 12. Ecosystems
- 13. Biosphere
electrons, protons and neutrons
elemental (C, 0, Ne, Li)
found in cytoplasm - golgi bodies, mitochondria, lysosomes
smallest level that is considered living
heart, liver, kidneys, lungs
digestive, skeletal, muscular
environment of the planet
further from the midline
closer to the midline
away from midline
towards the midline
further from the head
closer to the surface of the skin
further from the surface of the skin
same side of midline
opposite sides of the midline Planes
vertical on the midline
vertical anywhere off midline
cross sections- longitudinal- horizontal
longitudinal from the side
- 1. Cranial
- 2. Vertebral
- 3. Thoracic (pleural, pericardial, mediastinum)
- 4. Abmoniopelvic (abdominal, pelvic)
contains 2 pleural, pericardial & mediastinum cavities
potential space between the layers of the pleura that surround a lung
potential space between the layers of the pericardium that surrounds the heart
central portion of thoracic cavity between the lungs: extends from sternum to vertebral column and from 1st rib to diaphragm; contains Heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, & several large blood vessels.
spinal cord & beginings of spinal nerves
subdivided into abdominal & pelvic cavities
- 1. stomach
- 2. spleen
- 3. liver
- 4. gallbladder
- 5. small intestine
- 6. most of large intestine
- (the serous membrane is the peritoneum)
- 1. urinary bladder
- 2. portions of large intestine
- 3. internal organs of reproduction
what separates the abdominal quadrants
transumbilical line laterally & median line medially
- R hypochondriac region
- epigastric region
- L hypochndriac region
- R lumbar region
- umbilical region
- L lumbar region
- R inguinal region
- hypogastric region
- L inguinal region
Smallest living units of structure & function in the body?
structure of the atom
- Protons- Positively charged atom found in the nucleus
- Neutrons- Neutrally charged atom found in the nucleus
- Electrons- Negatively charged atom found in the outer orbitals
Number of protons in the nucleus
an electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
valance shell calculation
- LEVEL 1 (S)2 (P)NA (D)NA (F)NA
- LEVEL 2 (S)2 (P)8 (D)NA (F)NA
- LEVEL 3 (S)2 (P)8 (D)10 (F)NA
- LEVEL 4 (S)2 (P)8 (D)10 (F)14
transfer of electrons
sharing of electrons
two other elements that associate with hydrogen (water)
a mixture that dissolves in water
a mixture that doesn't dissolve in water
What would influence the rate of a chemical reaction?
Catalyst, temperature, concentration
terms in which a solution's acidity or alkalinity is expresed (0 to 14)
What pH of the blood does the homeostatic mechanisms of the body maintain
7.35 to 7.45
at what pH in the blood is it considered acidosis
at what pH in the blood is it considered alkalosis
white matter tracts
highways for nerve impulse propagation located in spinal cord
spinal cord gray matter
site for integration (summin) of excitatory postsynaptic potentials & inhibitory postsyaptic potentials
conveys nerve impulses for sensing pain, temp, itching, tickling, deep pressure and crude touch
how do nerve impulses from sensory receptors propagate up the spinal cord to the brain?
along 2 main routes on each side: the spinothalamic tract and the posterior column.
- two tracts: the gracile fasciculus and cuneate fasciculus.
- tracts convey nerve impulses for discriminative touch, light pressure, vibration, and conscious proprioception (the awareness of the positions and movements of muscles, tendons, and joints)
How does motor output to skeletal muscles travel down the spinal cord?
in two types of decsending pathways: direct & indirect.
direct motor pathways include what tracts...
- lateral corticospinal
- anterior corticospinal
- (convey nerve impulses that originate in the cerebral cortex & are destined to cause voluntary movements of skeletal muscles)
indirect motor pathways include what tracts...
- lateral reticulospinal
- medial reticulospinal
- (convey nerve impulses from the brain stem to caus automatic movements and help coordinate body movements with visual stimuli)
- also maintain skeletal muscle tone, play major role in equilibrium by regulating muscle tone in response to movements of the head.
4 groups of orgainic compounds
- 1. carbohydrates
- 2. lipids
- 3. nucleic acids
- 4. proteins
- 1. huge organic molecules that contain C, H, N & P
- 2. two types
- a. deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
- b. ribonucleic acid (RNA)
- 1. sugars, glycogen, starches & cellulose
- 2. 2-3% of body mass
- 3. source of chemical E for generating ATP (needed to drive metabolic reactions)
glucose, a carbohydrate with the molecular formula C6H1206. Glucose is the basic form of fuel in living things. It is soluble and is transported by body fluids to all cells, where it is metabolized to release its energy.
major groups of carbohydrates
- 1. monosaccharides
- 2. disaccharides
- 3. plysaccharides
- 1. 18 to 20% body mass in lean adults
- 2. contain C, H & O
- 3. hydrophobic (insoluble to water)
- (lipoproteins lipids that have joined w/ hydrophilic protein molecules)
- a long chain of carbon atoms (from 4 to 24) with a carboxyl (—COOH) group at one end.
- 1. simplest lipid & used to synthesize triglycerides & phospholipids
- 2. can be saturated or unsaturaded
- The fatty acids in a fat may be all alike or they may all be different. They are bound to the glycerol molecule by a process that involves the removal of water.
saturated fatty acid
contains only single covalent bonds between carbon atoms of the hydrocarbon chain. because they lack double bonds, each carbon atom of the hydrocarbon chain is saturated w/ hydrogen atoms.
unsaturated fatty acid
contains one or more double covalent bonds between the carbon atoms of the hydrocarbon chain. thus, the fatty acid is not completely saturated w/ hydrogen atoms. it has a kink (bend) at the site of the double bond.
mono-unsaturated fatty acid
has just one double bond in the hydrocarbon chain
poly-unsaturated fatty acid
fatty acid has more than one double bond in the hydrocarbon chain. it contains more than one kink.
Atoms essential for maintaining life:
- 1. carbon (C 6)
- 2. hydrogen (H 1)
- 3. oxygen (O 8)
- 4. nitrogen (N 6)
- 5. phosphorus (P 15)
- 6. calcium (Ca 20)
- 7. sulfur (S 16)
- major molecules from which living things are constructed
- 1. large molecules that contain C, H, O & N. normal adult maile 12 to 18% protein.
- 2. much more complex than carbohydrates or lipids
- 3. many roles but largely responsible for structure of body tissues
- 4. enzymes are proteins that speed up biochemical reactions
- 5. atibodies are proteins
- 6. hormones that regulate homeostasis are proteins
Levels of Structural Org in Protein
- Primary: sequence of amino acids. unique sequence of amino acids linked by covalent peptide bonds to form polypeptide chain
- Secondary: local regular structures i.e. strands. repeated twisting or folding of neighboring amino acids in the polypeptide chain. 2 common secondary structures - alpha helixes (clockwise spirals) & beta pleated sheets. the 2ndary structure of a protein is stabilized by hydrogen bonds.
- tertiary structure: overall shape of a single polypeptide. 3D shape of a polypeptide chain. several tpes of bonds can contribute to a protein's tertiary structure. strongest bus least common bonds, s-s covalent bonds called disulfide bridges.
- Quaternary structure: arrangement of several polypeptide chains.
- living cells, most catalysts are protein molecules. some consists of tow parts 1) apoenzyme 2) nonprotein portion cofactor
- Enzymes are...
- 1. highly specific
- 2. very efficient
- 3. subject to a variety of cellular controls
the non-protein part of a 2 part enzyme. the 2nd part is apoenzyme. it may be metal or an organic molecule called coenzyme.
organic molecule cofactor. derived from vitamins. -ase
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
- "energy currency" of living systems. transfers the energy liberated in exergonic catabolic reactions to power cellular activities that require energy (endergonic reactions).
- consists of 3 phosphate groups attached to adenosine.
- muscular contractions, movement of chromosomes during cell division, movement of structures w/in cells, transport of substances across cell membranes, & synthesis of larger molecules from smaller ones.
This means that the liquid has dissolved all of the solute that is possible. If you add one teaspoon of sugar to iced tea, you've got an unsaturated solution. If you keep adding sugar to iced tea, you eventually get to the point where the rest of the sugar just sinks to the bottom. When this happens, it means that the solution is saturated, because no more sugar could dissolve.
This means that if you were to add more solute to the liquid, it would keep dissolving. For example, if you take one teaspoon of salt and put it in a bucket of water, you've made an unsaturated solution. (In other words, if you added another teaspoon of salt, it would dissolve, too).
cell membrane structure
- 1. works as a barrier between the inner and outer surface of a cell. In animal cells, the plasma membrane is present in the outer most layer of the cell and in plant cell it is present just beneath the cell wall.
- 2. primarily composed of proteins and lipids. While lipids help to give membranes their flexibility and proteins monitor and maintain the cell's chemical climate and assist in the transfer of molecules across the membrane.
- 3 lipid bilayer is semi-permeable, which allows only selected molecules to diffuse across the membrane.
cell membrane function
- 1. separates the contents of the cell from its outside environment and it regulates what enters and exits the cell
- 2. plays a vital role in protecting the integrity of the interior of the cell by allowing only selected substances into the cell and keeping other substances out
- 3. serves as a base of attachment for the cytoskeleton in some organisms and the cell wall in others. Thus it supports the cell and helps in maintaining the shape of the cell.
- Simple diffusion - a process whereby a substance passes through a membrane without the aid of an intermediary such as a integral membrane protein.
- Osmosis - movement of solvent molecules through a partially permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration
- Facilitated Diffusion - the process of spontaneous passive transport (as opposed to active transport) of molecules or ions across a biological membrane via specific integral proteins
- 1. Endocytosis
- 2. Exocytosis
an energy-using process by which cells absorb molecules (such as proteins) by engulfing them. It is used by all cells of the body because most substances important to them are large polar molecules that cannot pass through the hydrophobic plasma or cell membrane.
- energy-consuming process by which a cell directs the contents of secretory vesicles out of the cell membrane and into the extracellular space. These membrane-bound vesicles contain soluble proteins to be secreted to the extracellular environment, as well as membrane proteins and lipids that are sent to become components of the cell membrane.
- [1. secretory cells that liberate digestive enzmes, hormones, mucus or other secretons 2. nerve cells that release neurotransmitters]
the total molar concentration of all dissolved solute particles is less than that of another solution or less than that of a cell. If concentrations of dissolved solutes are less outside the cell than inside, the concentration of water outside is correspondingly greater. When a cell is exposed to such hypotonic conditions, there is net water movement into the cell.
movement of water out of the cell is exactly balanced by movement of water into the cell
the total molar concentration of all dissolved solute particles is greater than that of another solution, or greater than the concentration in a cell. If concentrations of dissolved solutes are greater outside the cell, the concentration of water outside is correspondingly lower. As a result, water inside the cell will flow outwards to attain equilibrium, causing the ceil to shrink. As cells lose water, they lose the ability to function or divide.
Sequence events of protein synthesis
- 1. DNA unzips
- 2. M-RNA copies itself from exposed DNA bases
- 3. Ribosomal proteins read m-RNA
- 4. t-RNA adds the correct amino acids together to form the protein chain
Sequence of events of cell-replication
- Gl- interval of time from the end of mitosis to the beginning of S-phase
- S phase- DNA replication
- G2- interval of time from the end of S phase to the beginning of Mitosis
- Mitotic Phase - Mitosis, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis.
- 1. Prophase
- 2. Metaphase
- 3. Anaphase
- 4. Telophase
- 5 Cytokinesis
- 1. chromatin fibers condense into paired chromatids
- 2. nucleolus & nuclear envelope disappear
- 3. each centrosome moves to an opposite pole of the cell
centromeres of chromatid pairs line up at the metaphase plate
- 1. centromeres split
- 2. identical sets of chromosomes move to opposite poles of cell
- 1. nuclear envelopes & nucleoli reappear
- 2. chromosomes resume chromatin form
- 3. mitotic spindle diappears
- 1. cytoplasmic division
- 2. contractile ring forms cleavage forrow around center of cell
- 3. deviding cytoplasm into separate & equal portions
4 basic tissues
- 1. Epithelium- covers body cavity structures; lines organs and glands (epithelial cells)
- 2. Connective- protects/supports body & organs; most abundant; binds organs; immunity (fibroblasts, macrophages, plasma cells, mast cells, adipocytes, leukocytes)
- 3. Nervous- made up of neurons (communicating; non-mitogenic) & neuroglia (supportive but don't communicate; mitogenic)
- 4. Muscle- skeletal (voluntary), cardiac (involuntary)[intercalated discs, striations], smooth (involuntary) movement and support
four basic tissues, examples of each type and the cells found in each
- 1. Epithelium- covers body cavity structures; lines organs and glands (epithelial cells)
- 2. Connective- most abundant; binds organs; immunity; store E as fat
- 3. Nervous- made up of neurons (communicating; non-mitogenic) & neuroglia (supportive but don't communicate; mitogenic)
- 4. Muscle- skeletal (voluntary), cardiac (involuntary), smooth (involuntary) movement and support, specialized for contraction and generation of force.
contact points between the plasma membranes of tissue cells
5 types of cell jucntions
- 1. tight junction
- 2. adherens junction
- 3. gap junctions
- 4. desmosomes
- 5. hemidesmosomes
the interface between masses of cells and the lumen (cavity or space)
provide strong mechanical attachments between adjacent cells
intercellular channels some 1.5 2 nm in diameter. These permit the free passage between the cells of ions and small molecules
localized patches that hold two cells tightly together. They are common in epithelia (e.g., the skin). Desmosomes are attached to intermediate filaments of keratin in the cytoplasm.
resemble desmosomes, but do not link adjacent cells. look like 1/2 of a desmosomes. transmembrane glycoprotein is integrins (not cadherins as in desmosomes).
Describe glands: unicellular, multicellular, merocrine, apocrine, holocrine
- 1. unicellular- a single secretory cell, such as a mucinogen-secreting goblet cell.
- 2. multicellular- composed of many cells.
- 3. merocrine- pancreatic acinar cells
- 4. apocrine- fat droplet secretion by mammary gland
- 5. holocrine- sebaceous glands for skin and nose
structure and functions of the skin and its exocrine glands
- Epidermis- the outermost layer
- Dermis- the inner layer that contains sweat glands, sebaceous glands & hair follicles
- Subcutaneous layer- under the dermis and made up of connective tissue and fat
Functions of the skin
- 1. Provides a protective barrier against mechanical, thermal and physical injury and hazardous substances
- 2. Prevent loss of moisture
- 3. Reduces harmful effects of UV radiation
- 4. Acts as a sensory organ (touch, detects temperature)
- 5. An immune organ to detect infections
- 6. Production of vitamin C.
- 1. Sweat glands- produce sweat that travels via sweat ducts to openings in the epidermis called pores. They play a role in temperature regulation
- 2. Hair follicles- pits in which hair grows, which also plays a role in temperature regulation
- 3. Sebaceous glands- produce sebum (an oil) to keep hairs free from dust and bacteria.
has a thinner dermis than thin skin, and does not contain hairs, sebaceous glands or apocrine sweat glands. It's only foundin areas where there is a lot of abrasion (fingertips, palms and the soles ofthe feet)
has a thicker dermis than thick skin, which makes the skin easier to suture if it gets damaged. Thin skin also has fewermerocrine sweat glands.
order of the epidermal strata; cells in each strata.
- 1. Stratumcomeum- langerhans cells
- 2. Stratumlucidum- langerhans cells
- 3. Stratumgranulosum- langerhans cells
- 4. Stratumsplnosum- langerhans cells
- 5. Stratumbasale- langerhans cells; melanocytes; merkel cells
order of the phases of deep wound healing
- 1. Inflammatoryresponse- sounds general alarm
- 2. WBC,T+B cells, macrophages
- 3. Platelets-form platelet plug
- 4. Neutrophils-help with plug
- 5. Monocytes
- 6. Clot over time becomes a scab to provide protection
- 7. Damaged vessels repair themselves
- 8. Proliferation-growth
- 9. Collagen fibers are dense
- 10. Lose a lot of pacinian and meisner corpuscles
- 11. Lose blood vessels
- 12. Maturation-scab comes off & repair is complete
- are dendrites of sensory neurons specialized for receiving specific kinds of stimuli.
- the dendrites are encapsulated nerve endings whose terminal ends are enclosed in a capsule of connective tissue.
sensory receptors classified by microscopic structure...
- 1. free nerve endings of 1st order sensory neurons
- 2. encapsulated nerve endings of 1st order sensory neurons
- 3. separate cells that synapse synapse w/ 1st order sensory neurons
free nerve endings sensory receptors
- bare dendrites; lack any structural specializations that can be seen under a microscope.
- (pain, temp, tickle, itch, & some touch)
encapsulated nerve endings sensory receptors
sensory receptors for other somatic & visceral sensations, & some touch sensations
separate cells sensory receptors
- sensory receptors for some special senses are specialized & synapse w/ sensory neurons.
- (hair cells for hearing & equilibrium in the inner ear, gustatory receptor cells in taste buds, & photoreceptors in the retina)
Posterior column - medial lemniscus
a sensory pathway of the central nervous system that conveys localized sensations of fine touch and vibrations.
a sensory pathway from the skin to the thalamus. From the ventral posterolateral nucleus in the thalamus, sensory information is relayed upward to the somatosensory cortex of the postcentral gyrus.
serves as a touch and vibration pathway from the face, head and neck. After receiving input from Meissner's and Pacinian corpuscles, first order neurons enter the pons and synapse in the principal trigeminal nucleus.
a small bundle of descending fibers that connect the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord. It is usually small, varying inversely in size with the lateral corticospinal tract, which is the main part of the corticospinal tract. It lies close to the anterior median fissure, and is present only in the upper part of the medulla spinalis; gradually diminishing in size as it descends, it ends about the middle of the thoracic region.
a nerve pathway that coordinates head and eye movements. The tectospinal tract connects the midbrain tectum and the spinal cord. It is responsible for motor Impulses that arise from one side of the midbrain to muscles on the opposite side of the body. The function of the tectospinal tract is to mediate reflex postural movements of the head in response to visual and auditory stimuli.
direct motor pathways
a neuronal circuit within the central nervous system (CNS) through thebasal ganglia which facilitates theinitiation and execution of voluntary movement.
indirect motor pathway
a neuronal circuit through the basal ganglia and several associated nuclei within the central nervous system (CNS) which helps to prevent unwanted muscle contractions from competing with voluntary movements.
Functions of the skeleton...
- 1. movement
- 2. support
- 3. protection
- 4. hemopoesis (RBC/WBC/Platelets)
- 5. mineral homeostasis (Ca++, PTH - chemo receptors)
- 6. energy storage (yellow marrow in shaft of long bone - attipose tissue)
Major Skeletal System Divisions
- All the bones through the midline of the body.
- bones of the skull, vertebral column, sternum & ribs
- 80 bones
- Upper & lower limbs (extremities or appendages), plus the bones forming the girdles that connect the limbs to the axial skeleton
- (appendic = to hang on to)
- 126 bones
Total number of bones
- (all articulate except for Hoid bone)
classification of bone
- 1. longbone
- 2. shortbone
- 3. flat bone
- 4. irregular
- 5. sesamoid
bones that develop in specific tendons; i.e. patella
bones of the skull, sternum,pelvis and ribs
humerus, femur, tibia,fibia
cuboidal in shape, located only in the foot (tarsals) and wrist (carpals)
bones of the face and vertebral column
unspecialized bone stem cells. only bone cells to undergo cell division; the resuting cells develop into osteoblasts.
- blasts -> build bone
- building cells. synthesize and secrete collagen fibers and other organic components needed to build the extracellular matrix of bone tissue, and they initiate calcification.
mature bone cells, are the main cells in bone tissue and maintain its daily metabolism. ie exchange of nutrients & waste with the blood.no cell devision
- clasts -> break down
- huge cellsconcentrated in the endosteum - on the side that faces the bone surface - deeply folded into a ruffled border. Causes RESORPTION
hormones involved in calcium homeostasis: CT, PTH, Calcitriol, estrogen, IFGs
- Bones play an important role in regulating blood calcium levels, which must be maintained within narrow limits for functions such as muscle contraction and membrane potentials to occur normally.
- hypocalcemia: deficiency of blood calcium
- hypercalcemia: excess of blood calcium
- Bone is the major storage site for calcium in the body, and movement of calcium into and out of bone helps to determine blood calcium levels.
- Calcium moves into bone as osteoblasts build new bone and out of bone as osteoclasts break down bone.
- The hormones parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin help regulate blood calcium levels.
- Calcitonin, secreted by the thyroid gland inhibits osteoclasts and stimulates osteoblasts, thus decreasing blood calcium levels.
- Parathyroid hormone is secreted by the parathyroid glands, which are on the posterior side of the thyroid. Parathyroid hormone inhibits osteoblasts, stimulates osteoclasts, reduces the output of calcium by the kidneys and promotes the absorption of calcium by the small intestines, thus increasing blood calcium levels.
types of joints
- 1. Ball & Socket
- 2. Hinge Joint
- 3. Gliding
- 4. Pivot
- 5. Condyle
- 6. Saddle joint
Ball & Socket
allows bending in several directions without slipping, creating a highly stable, strong joint, (humerus, femur)
allows for stable flexion and extension without sliding or deviation (elbow)
allow for smooth movement in several directions along a plane or other smooth surface. The articulation is like two plates sliding across each other. An example would be the carpal bones of the wrist,which form a gliding synovial joint.
a joint in which rotational motion occurs without gliding movement. This type of joint allows for turning motions without sideways displacement or bending, (humerus, femur)
an irregular surface where the bones move past one another. This type of joint is like two bowls nested together
This sort of articulation allows bending motion in several directions without sliding. The carpal-metacarpal joint of the thumb is an example of a saddle synovial joint.
found in the cavities of synovial joints and it reduces the friction between the articular cartilage during movement.
types of movement in synovial joints
- 1. flexion
- 2. lateral flexion
- 3. extension
- 4. hyperextension
- 5. abduction
- 6. adduction
- 7. circumduction
- 8. rotation
- 9. special (elevation, depression, protraction, retraction,inversion, eversion, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, supination, pronation, opposition)
decrease in angle between bones. decrease in angle between articulating bones, usually in sagittal plane.
movement of trunk in frontal plane
increase in angle between articulating bones, usually in sagittal plane
extension beyond anatomical position
movement of bone away from midline, usually in frontal plane
movement of bone toward midline, usually in frontal plane
flexion, abduction, extension, adduction, and rotation in succession (or in the opposite order); distal end of body part moves in circle.
movement of the bone around longitudinal axis; in limbs, may be medial (toward midline) or lateral (away from midline).
types of muscle
- 1. skeletal (voluntary)
- 2. smooth
- 3. cardiac involuntary
voluntary; S.N.S. - allow movement by attaching to bones; It controls voluntary movements which are consciously controlled. They are made up of cylindrical fibers with the nucleus of each cell being toward the edge of each striated cell.
Involuntary; A.N.S. -composed of elongated, spindle shaped cells. The nucleus is centrally located and there are no striations. This type of muscle is located throughout the body most commonly found in the walls of blood vessels, urinary bladder and the digestive system.
Involuntary; A.N.S.-roughly quadrangular in shape and have a single central nucleus. The cells form a network of branching fibers and are cross striated. They are found in the heart.
Anatomy of the Sarcomere
- 1. An entire array of thick and thin filaments between the Z disks
- 2. The thick filaments produce the dark A band
- 3. The thin filaments extend in each direction from the Z disk. Where they do not overlapthe thick filaments, they create the light I band
- 4. The H zone is that portion of the A band where the thick and thin filaments do not over lap
- 5. The M line runs through the exact center of the sarcomere. Molecules of the giant protein, titin, extend from the M line to the Z disk. One of its functions is to provide elasticity to the muscle. It also provides a scaffold for the assembly of a precise number of myosin molecules in the thick filament (294 in one case). It may also dictate the number of actin molecules in the thin filaments.
Sequence the events of skeletal muscle contraction
- 1. An electrical signal (action potential) travels down a nerve, causing it to release a chemical message (neurotransmitter) into a small gap between the nerve cell and muscle cell. This gap is called the synapse.
- 2. The neurotransmitter crosses the gap, binds to a protein (receptor) on the muscle-cell membrane and causes an action potential in the muscle cell.
- 3. The action potential rapidly spreads along the muscle cell and enters the cell through the T-tubule.
- 4. The action potential opens gates in the muscle's calcium store (sarcoplasmicreticulum).
- 5. Calcium ions flow into the sarcoplasm, which is where the actin and myosin filaments are.
- 6. Calcium ions bind to troponin-tropomyosin molecules located in the grooves of the actin filaments. Normally, the rod-like tropomyosin molecule covers the sites on actin where myosin can form cross-bridges.
- 7. Upon binding calcium ions, troponin changes shape and slides tropomyosin out of the groove, exposing the actin-myosin binding sites.
- 8. Myosin interacts with actin by cycling cross-bridges, as described previously. The muscle thereby creates force, and shortens.
- 9. After the action potential has passed, the calcium gates close, and calcium pumps located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum remove calcium from the cytoplasm.
- 10. As the calcium gets pumped back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum, calcium ions come off the troponin.
- 11. The troponin returns to its normal shape and allows tropomyosin to cover the actin-myosin binding sites on the actin filament.
- 12. Because no binding sites are available now, no cross-bridges can form, and the muscle relaxes.
order of the reactions which produce ATP in skeletal muscle
- 1. adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is split into adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and phosphate to supply the energy for muscle contraction.
- 2. free energy released by the ATP when the phosphate is split off is transferred to the heads on the myosin filaments.
- 3. heads move and store potential energy in their new position. When the heads interact withactin, the energy is used to slide the filaments past one another transferring the energy into movement (kinetic energy).
an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals. These signals between neurons occur via synapses, specialized connections with other cells. Neurons can connect to each other to form neural networks. Neurons are the core components of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord and the ganglia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) which comprises the central nervous system (CNS).
non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons in the brain and peripheral nervous system.
types of neuroglia cells
- 1. astrocytes
- 2. microglia
- 3. oligodendrocytes
- 4. schwann cells
- 1. star shaped that wrap around presynaptic terminals of a group of functionally related axons
- 2. 2 types - 1 found in gray matter & the other in white matter
- 3. takes up chemicals and then releases them back to axons, helping synchronize activity of axons, enabling them to send messages in waves
- 4. removes waste when neurons die and controls amt. of blood flow to each area of the brain
- 5. important for info processing
- 1. VERY small cells
- 2. remove waste as well as viruses, fungi, and other microorganisms
- 3. function like part of immune system
- 1. located in brain and spinal cord
- 2. specialized types of glia that form and maintian the myelin sheath around CNS axons.
- 1. located in peripheral nervous system
- 2. specialized types of glia that build the myelin sheaths that surround and insulate certain veterbrate actions
Name the tracts... (brain)
- 1. association
- 2. commisural
- 3. projection
communication to another bundle in same place
communication to another bundle in opposite hemisphere
communication from/to white to/from cerebrial cortex
Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials (ESPSs)
- 1. a graded potential that makes the membrane potential less negative or more positive, thus making the postsynaptic cell more likely to have an action potential.
- 3. caused by the influx of Na+or Ca*2 from the extracellular space into the neuron or muscle cell. when the presynaptic neuron has an action potential, Ca++ enters the axon terminal via voltage-dependent calcium channels and causes exocytosis of synaptic vesicles, causing neurotransmitter to be released.
- 4. transmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft and activates ligand-gated ion channels that mediate the EPSP. the amplitude of the EPSP is directly proportional to the number of synaptic vesicles that were released. if the EPSP is not large enough to trigger an action potential, the membrane subsequently repolarizes to its resting membrane potential. this shows the temporary and reversible nature of graded potentials.
Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials (IPSPs)
- 1. a graded potential that makes the membrane potential more negative, and make the postsynaptic cell less likely to have an action potential
- 2. hyperpolarization of membranes is caused by influx of CI- or efflux of K+. as with EPSPs, the amplitude of the IPSP is directly proportional to the number of synaptic vesicles that were released.
event sequences of an action potential
- 1. a stimulus is received by the dendrites of a nerve cell. this causes the Na*channels to open. if the opening is sufficient to drive the interior potential from -70 mV up to -55 mV, the process continues.
- 2. having reached the action threshold, more Na* channels (sometimes called voltage-gated channels) open. the Na*influx drives the interior of the cell membrane up to about +30 mV. the process to this point is called depolarization.
- 3. Na*channels close and the K* channels open. since the K* channels are much slower to open, the depolarization has time to be completed. having both Na* and K* channels open at the same time would drive the system toward neutrality and prevent the creation of the action potential.
- 4. with the K* channels open, the membrane begins to repolarize back toward its rest potential.
- 5. repolarization typically overshoots the rest potential to about -90 mV. this is called hyperpolarization and would seem to be counter productive, but it is actually important in the transmission of information. hyperpolarization prevents the neuron from receiving another stimulus during this time, or at least raises the threshold for any new stimulus. part of the importance of hyperpolarization is in preventing any stimulus already sent up an axon from triggering another action potential in the opposite direction. in other words, hyperpolarization assures that the signal is proceeding in one direction.
- 6. after hyperpolarization, the Na+/K+ pump eventually brings the membrane back to its resting state of -70 mV.
- a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem
- 1. Cervical- 8 segments; C1-C8
- 2. Thoracic-12 segments; T1-T12
- 3. Lumbar-5 segments; L1-L5
- 4. Sacral-5 segments; S1-S5
- 5. Coccyx-1 segment
- a mixed nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body
- in the human there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, one oneach side of the vertebral column
List the Brain Meninges
- 1. Duramater
- 2. Piamater
- 3. Arachnoidmater
thick, durable membrane,closest to the skull. it is the outermost part, comprised of loosely arranged fibroelastic layers of cells with no extracellular collagen and significant extracellular spaces.
very thin membrane composed of fibrous tissue covered on its outer surface by a sheet of flat cells thought to be impermeable to fluid. the pia mater is pierced by blood vessels to the brain and spinal cord,and its capillaries nourish the brain.
inverts the spinal cord loosely. continuous with the cerebral arachnoid above, it traverses the foramen magnum and descends to about the S2 vertebral level.
membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells in the CNS. it contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes.
nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the peripheral nervous system(PNS). Cells found in a ganglion are called ganglion cells, though this term is also sometimes used to refer specifically to retinal ganglion cells.
Ganglion vs Nucleus
ganglion refers to a cluster of neuronal cell bodies located in the PNS. ganglia are closely associated with cranial and spinal nerves. by contrast, a nucleus is a cluster of neuronal cell bodies located in the CNS.
- made up of five basic elements:
- 1. receptor
- 2. sensory neuron
- 3. center
- 4. motor neuron
- 5. effector
- The receptor hosts the dendrite of the sensory neuron as well as the initiation of the entire process, the initiation of nerve impulse. The sensory neuron is responsible for relaying the impulse through the posterior root of the central nervous system, where the center is located. One or two interneurons, or association neurons are involved in this process. At this point, the arc is made, and the process of synapse permits other parts ofthe body to receive the necessary impulses. The effector organ, which is almost always a skeletal muscle, then receive the required information through the impulses sent via a motor neuron. The response initiated by the effector organ is known as a reflex action. This is what most people refer to as reflexes.
located on or affecting or relating to the opposite side of the body
Located on or affecting or relating to the same side of the body. For example, many somatic reflexes, such as stretch reflexes, receive a stimulus on one side of the bodyand the motor response whichfollows is returned to muscles on the same side of the body
A polysynaptic neuron pathway which involves sensory impulses being received in one segment of the spinal cord and then stimulating interneurons which route the sensory information to motor neurons in both superior and inferior segments of the spinal cord in order to permit innervation of a variety of muscles in the reflex action.
large extensions of ventral rami
- 1. Cervical Plexus
- 2. Brachial Plexus
- 3. Lumbar Plexus
- 4. Sacral Plexus
Cirvical Plexus Nerve(s)
Brachial Plexus Nerve(s)
- 1. Musculocutaneous Nerve
- 2. Axillary Nerve
- 3. Median Nerve
- 4. Radial Nerve
- 5. Ulnar Nerve
Lumbar Plexus Nerve(s)
- 1. Femoral Nerve
- 2. Obturator Nerve
Sacral Plexus Nerve(s)
- 1. Sciatic Nerve
- 2. Tibial Nerve
- 1. Trunks
- 2. Cords
- 3. Roots
- 4. Nerves
nerve that originates in the neck (C3-C5) and passes down between the lung and heart to reach the diaphragm. it is important for breathing, as it passes motor information to the diaphragm and receives sensory information from it.
comprised of multiple subcortical nuclei, in the brains of vertebrates, which are situated at the base of the forebrain. they are strongly interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and brainstem, as well as several other brain areas.
Blood Brain Barrier
highly selective permeable barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain extracellular fluid in the CNS. it allows for the passage of water, some gases and lipid soluble molecules by passive diffusion, as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function.
a pea-sized gland that sits in a protective bony enclosure called the sella turcica. it synthesizes and secretes hormones.
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
a clear colorless bodily fluid found in the brain and spine. produced in the choroid plexus of the brain. acts as a cushion or buffer for the brain's cortex, providing a basic mechanical and immunological protection to the brain inside the skull, and it serves a vital function in cerebral auto regulation of cerebral blood flow.
nerves cross from one side of the brain to the other, and typically the nerves from the left side of the body decussate to the right side of the brain and the nerves from the right side of the body decussate to the left brain, however depending on the function of the nerves the level of decussation is variable.
bundles of nerve fibers in the CNS
number, name, and function of the twelve pairsof cranial nerves
- I. Olfactory: Smell
- II. Optic: Vision
- III. Oculomotor: Eye Movement
- IV. Trochlear: Eye Movement (down/in)
- V. Trigeminal: chewing muscles
- VI. Abducens: eye movement (abducting eyes)
- VII. Facial: face & anterior 2/3 of tongue
- VIII. Vestibulocochlear or Acuoustic: Hearing & equilibrium
- IX. Glossopharyngeal: posterior 1/3 tongue (taste buds & production of saliva)
- X. Vagus: smooth muscle (digestion/defecation slow heart)
- XI. Accessory: spinal accessory - swallowing & head movement
- XII. Hypoglossal: tongue during speech & swallowing (12th ice cream cone)
Which cranial nerve has its own dermatome?
cranial nerve V has its own dermatone.
Which cranial nerves are mixed?
- III - Oculomotor
- V - Trigeminal
- VII - Facial
- IX - Accessory
- X - Vagus
Which cranial nerves are special sensory?
- I - Olfactory
- II - Optic
- VII - Facial
- VIII - Vestibulocochlear or Acoustic
- IX - Accessory
conducts impulses from the PNS to the skeletal muscles of the body
conducts impulses from the PNS to cardiac and smooth muscles and glands
conserves energy; promotes "housekeeping" functions during rest
mobilizes body systems during activity "fight or flight"
neurons whose cell bodies lie in the central nervous system and whose efferent fibers terminatein the autonomic ganglia
neurons whose cell bodies lie in the autonomic ganglia and whose purpose is to relay impulses beyond the ganglia
- 3 layers (tunics)
- 1. Fibrous layer (sclera& cornea)
- 2. Vascular layer (choroid, cilliary body & iris)
- 3. Sensory layer (epithelial retina, neuronal retina; ganglion, bi-polar cells & photoreceptors; cones & rods).
- The function of the eye is to transmit messages from what the eye sees to the brain.
- 3 layers (outer, middle, inner)
- 1. Outer; pinna, ear canal & external auditory meatus
- (function of the outer ear is to funnel sounds)
- 2. Middle; ear drum (tympanic membrane), ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes); auditory tube that connects to nasal pharynx
- (function of the middle ear is processing sound waves)
- 3. Inner, cochlea, vestibula, semicircular canals
- (function of the inner ear is hearing and equilibrium)
Nasal conci (folds) that increase surface area; olfactory receptor cells- environmental - neuronal impulse
- contains taste buds found on the tongue which are known as papillae.
- four different kinds of papillae
- 1. circumvallate (100-300)
- 2. foliate papillae found on the side of the tongue
- 3. fungiform found on the posterior surface of the tongue
- 4. filiform found on the anterior surface of the tongue
- sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion. normally there are four main types in glabrous skin:
- 1. pacinian corpuscles
- 2. meissner's corpuscles
- 3. merkel's discs
- 4. ruffini endings
- There arealso mechanoreceptors in hairy skin, and the hair cells in the cochlea are the most sensitive mechanoreceptors, transducing air pressure waves into nerve signals sent to the brain. In the periodontal ligament, there are some mechanoreceptors, which allow the jaw to relax when biting down on hard objects; the mesencephalic nucleus is responsible for this reflex.
sensory receptor, or more accurately the receptive portion of a sensory neuron, that codes absolute and relative changes intemperature
sensory receptor that transduces a chemical signal into an action potential. in more general terms, a chemosensor detects certain chemical stimuli in the environment.
which sensory pathways synapse in the thalamus?
- 1. spinothalamic tract
- 2. lateral spinothalamic tract
- 3. anterior (or ventral) spinothalamic tract
- release the neurotransmitter ACh. in the ANS they include:
- 1. all sympathetic & parasympathetic preganglionic neurons
- 2. sympathetic post ganglionic neurons that innervate most seat glands
- 3. all parasympathetic postganglionic neurons
two types of cholinergic receptors, both of wh/ bind ACh
- 1. nocotinic
- 2. muscarinic
present in plasma membrane of dendrites & cell bodies of both sympathetic & parasympathetic postganglionic neurons, the plasma membranes of chromaffin cells of the adrenal medullae, & in motor end plate at the neuromuscular junction.
present in the plasma membranes of all effectors (smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, & glands) innervated by parasympathetic postganglionic axons. in addition, most sweat glands receive their innervation from cholinergic sympathetic postganglionic neurins and possess muscarinic receptors
nicotinic vs muscarinic receptors
nicotine does not activate muscarinic receptors & muscarine does not activate nicotinic receptors. ACh wil activate both muscarinic receptors and nicotinic receptors.
in the ANS they release norepinephrine (NE), also known as noradrenalin. most sympathetic postganglionic neurons are. they will bind both norepinephrine and epinephrine.
What are the two main types of adrenergic receptors?
alpha & beta. they are found on visceral effectors innervated by most sympathetic postganglionic axons.
activation of a1 & b1 receptors generally produce ______.
activation of a2 & b2 receptors generally produce ______.
inhibition of effector tissues
activation of b3 receptors generally produce ______.
thermogenesis (heat production)
_____ stimulates alpha receptors more strongly than beta receptors; _____ is a potent stimulator of both alpha & beta receptors.
sequence of events of protein synthesis
- 1. transcription
- 2. translation
occurs in nucleus; making RNA from DNA template
occurs in cytoplasm; making protein from mRNA template
- occurs in nucleus; making RNA from DNA template
- 1. DNA strand unzips
- 2. Transcription factors bind to DNA preparing for...
- 3. RNA polymerase to bind
- 4. ATP provides energy & starts to synthesis
- 5. RNA polymerase synthesizes RNA template from DNA strand
- 6. alternative splicing cuts out introns & splices together / keeps exons
- occurs in cytoplasm; making protein from mRNA template
- 1. mRNA attaches to small ribosomal submit
- 2. initiator + RNAbinds to codon on mRNA where translation begins; AUG (on mRNA) is codon for 1st amino acid
- 3. large ribosomal subunit attaches to small ribo submit - mRNA complex creating functional ribosome
- 4. another tRNA w/ A acid pairs w/ 2nd mRNA codon
- 5. peptide bond is made between the 2 amino acids
- 6. 2 peptide protein sttaches to tRNA at A site
- 7. codon shift; 2 peptide protein shifts to P site; another tRNA attaches to A
- 8. synthesis ends at "Stop" codon at A site; tRNA vacates P; ribosome splits into large + small subunits.
Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid (DNA)
Genetic material for the database of information
Ribo Nucleic Acid (RNA)
Transfers the DNA message into a messenger wh/ then goes out into the cytoplasm and in the ribosome under the construction of RRNA builds the proteins
Three Different Types of RNA
Transfer RNA (TRNA)
type of RNA wh/ helps undergo the process of transcription. transcribes the message from the DNA to the RNA
type of RNAtakes the message from the TRNA brings it out into the cytoplasm into the ribosome
type of RNAfinal componenet of the RNA that takes the message from the MRNA to put together the amino acids in the polypeptides and the peptide bonds that sequence amino acids and builds the protein
connective tissue composition
- two basic elements
- 1. extracellular matrix
- 2. cells
- material located between its widely spaced cells. consists of:
- 1. protein fibers
- 2. ground substance
extracellular fibers found in the extracellular matrix...
secreted by the connective tissue cells and account for many of the functional properties of the tissue in addition to controlling the surrounding watery environment via specific proteoglycan molecules.
types of connective tissue cells
- 1. fibroblasts
- 2. macrophages
- 3. plasma
- 4. mast
insulin-like growth factor. stimulate osteoblasts wh/ helps grow bone.