Geography A2 keywords - Weather and Climate.txt

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Geography A2 keywords - Weather and Climate.txt
2014-12-20 15:20:49

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    • author "me"
    • tags "Bramble1997"
    • description ""
    • fileName "Geography A2 keywords - Weather and Climate"
    • freezingBlueDBID -1.0
    • Air masses
    • Large bodies of air with distinct characteristics of temperature and humidity. They develop over stable areas where they adopt the characteristics of the ground surface, such as cold and dry (Arctic) or warm and wet (Tropics)
  1. Albedo
    Term used to describe the reflectivity of a surface, whereby white surfaces such as ice and the tops of couds are highly reflective (high albedo) and darker surfaces such as forests and roads are less reflective (low albedo)
  2. Atmosphere
    The air around us, the atmosphere is a layer comprising gases (e.g. nitrogen and oxygen), liquids, (e.g. water) and soils (e.g. volcanic dust)
  3. Atmospheric heat budget
    A model that describes the overall balance between incoming and outgoing heat (radiation) from the Earth atmosphere system
  4. Climate
    The long term average weather, usually calculated over a period of 30 years
  5. Cold front
    On a synoptic weather chart, a line drawn to mark the forward edge of colder air approaching and undercutting warmer air
  6. Condensation nuclei
    Microscopic particles such as dust and volcanic ash that form the nucleus of raindrops and are essential for the process of condensation
  7. Coriolis effect
    The effect of the Earths rotation on, for example, the movement of air (wind) or the direction of "spin" and tracks of tropical cyclones (hurricanes)
  8. Depressions
    Areas of low atmospheric pressure usually associated with cloudy and wet conditions resulting from the rising of air
  9. Enhanced greenhouse effect
    The increase in the natural greenhouse effect resulting from the emission of additional greenhouse gases from human activities
  10. Global warming
    The term used to describe the recent rise in global average temperatures attributed largely to human activites, such as burning fossil fuels and deforestation
  11. Greenhouse effect
    The absorption by gases and liquids of long-wave (terrestrial) radiation emitted from the Earth forming a "blanket" of warmth in the lower atmosphere
  12. Hurricanes
    Intense tropical storms (tropical cyclones) formed over warm oceanic areas in the summer
  13. Insolation
    Term used to describe the amount of short wave radiation (from the sun) that reaches the ground surface having passed through the atmosphere
  14. Inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ)
    The zone of convergence and subsequent rising air at the surface boundary of the two Hadley Cells in equatorial regions. This zone is associated with the formation of tropical cyclones (hurricanes)
  15. Isobars
    On a synoptic weather map, lines joining points of equal pressure
  16. Latent heat
    In the atmosphere, heat released or absorbed when a change of state place in water. Latent heat is released when water condenses and is absorbed when evaporation occurs
  17. Occluded front
    On a synoptic chart, a type of front (boundary between air masses) formed when a cold front catches up and merges with a warm front
  18. Particulates
    Solid particles held in the atmosphere, often emitted from factories, power stations and vehicle exhausts, often considered to be a form of pollution
  19. Photochemical smog
    A type of air pollution involving the formation of harmful chemicl substances in the air by the effects of sunlight. For example, nitrous oxides from vehicle exhausts can react with sunlight to form low level ozone
  20. Polar Front
    The boundary between the Polar Cell and the Ferrel Cell at approximatly 60 degrees N/S associated with uplift and instability (cloud and rain)
  21. Pressure gradient
    On a synoptic weather map, the difference in pressure between two points indicated by the closeness of the isobars. A steep pressure gradient (isobars close together) will result in strong winds, and a gentle pressure gradient (isobars far apart) low wind speeds
  22. Smog
    A type of air pollution associated with calm conditions in winter involving a mix of particulates (e.g. soot) and fog
  23. Solar radiation
    Incoming short wave energgy from the sun
  24. Storm surge
    A rise in the level of the sea and subsequent inundation oflow lying coastal land caused by the passage of an area of intense low pressure, such as hurricanes
  25. Sub-tropical anticyclone
    A broad zone of high pressure resulting from sinking air at the boundary between the Hadley Cell and Ferrel Cell, found at about 30 degrees N/S
  26. Synoptic chart
    A map or chart that makes use of standard symbols to show features of the weather
  27. Temperature inversion
    A reversal in the normal trend for temperature to decrease with increasing altitude. Temperature inversions commonly occur during clear, calm nights when dense cold air sinks beneath warmer less dense air in valley bottoms, often forming frost and fog
  28. Terrestrial radiation
    Heat emitted from the Earths surface in the form of long wave radiation
  29. Tornadoes
    Intense localised storms associated with rapidly rising air currents and violent thunderstorms
  30. Urban heat island
    The warmer conditions experienced by a city compared with the neighbouring countryside
  31. Warm front
    On a synoptic weather map, a line drawn to mark the forward edge of warmer air approaching and over-riding colder (denser) air
  32. Weather
    The day to day state of the atmosphere, such as temperature, precipitation etc
  33. Carbon sinks
    Absorb more carbon than they release
  34. Carbon sources
    Release more carbon than they absorb