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6 Types of Glaciers:
1. Valley Glacier
2. Cirque Glacier
3. Hanging Glacier
4. Piedmont Glacier
5. Retreation Glacier
6. Surging Glacier
Flows down a valley
Flows down a bowl
Forms on a cliff or ridgeline
Formed by one or more valley glaciers. Spread out over a large area
Annual melt of entire glacier exceeds the flow of ice
Annual flow of the ice exceeds the melt
Made of compacted granular snow (snow that is at least 1 year on the glacier, building blocks for glacier ice to form).
2. Accumulation Zone:
Area where glacier is snow covered throughout the year. Snowfall exceeds melt.
3. Ablation Zone
area where Snow melts in the summer. Melt equals or exceeds snowfall.
4. Firn Line
Line separating accumulation and ablation zones (can change annually due to weather)
Large crevasses at head of glacier caused by separation of active (flowing) and inactive (stationary) ice.
Crevasse formed along the sides an/or headwall of the glacier between moving glacier ice and rock (formed by heat reflected from the valley wall)
Split or crack in glacier surface (formed when glacier moves over irregularly in the bed surface)
8. Transverse Crevasses
Perpendicular to flow of glacier. Normally found where glacier flows overs a slope with a gradient change of 3 degrees or more.
9. Longitudinal Crevasses
Parallel to flow of glacier. Normally found where glacier widens
10. Diagonal Crevasses
At an angle to flow of glacier. Normally found along edges where glacier makes a bend
11. Snow Bridge
Snow covers over Crevasse
Jumble of criss-cross crevasses. Large ice towers. Normally found where glacier flows over a slope with a gradient change of 25 degrees or more
large pinnacles or towers of ice. Normally found on ice falls or on hanging glaciers.
14. Ice Avalanches
Falling chunks of ice Normally found near icefalls or hanging glaciers.
Accumulation f rock or debris on glacier. Cause by rock fall or avalanche of valley walls.
16. Lateral Moraine
Formed on sides of glaciers
17. Medial Moraine
Found in middle of glacier (formed as 2 glaciers come together or as glacier moves around a central peak).
18. Terminal Moraine
Found at base of glacier (Formed as moraines meet at snout or terminus of glacier)
19. Ground Moraine
Rocky debris extending out from terminus of glacier (formed as glacier retreats)
Rock projection protruding through the glacier. Glacier flows around
21. Ice Mill
Hole in glacier (formed by swirling water on surface)
22. Pressure ridges
Wavelike ridges on glacier. Normally found after glacier has flowed over icefalls.
23. Glacier Window
Opening at snout of the glacier. (point where water runs out of the glacier)
24. Glacial Streams
Found in valleys below glaciers and many braided channels
Glacier and Alpine Terrain Terminology