Pelvis and hip
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Pelvis and hip
Pelvis Hip Anatomy
Vet Med - Module 7
What type of bone is the pelvis?
What are the four components of the pelvis?
Ilium, ischium, pubis, acetabular bone
Where is the pubis located?
On the cranial aspect of the pelvic floor
What muscle attaches to the pubis?
The rectus abdominus muscle
Where is the ischium located?
On thee caudal aspect of the pelvic floor
Which foramen is present in the ischium and what passes through here?
The obturator foramen. This is where the obturator nerve passes through.
Which area of the ischium is the area of attachment for reproductive organs?
The ischiatic arch
What part of the ischium is palpable in all species?
The tuber ischium
What part of the pelvis is the ilium?
The ilium is the wing and body of the pelvis
True or false: the ilium is palpable?
What is the difference in orientation of the ilium in cats and dogs vs ruminants and horses
Cats and dogs - the ilium is vertically orientated. Horses and ruminants - the ilium is horizontally orientated.
What are the medial and lateral projections on the ilium of horses and ruminants?
Medial - tuber scrale
Lateral - tuber coxae
How many fused vertebrae are present in the sacrum of a) horses b) dogs?
True or false: the sacra-iliac joint is a synovial joint?
False - it is a fibrous joint and so is fused
What bones make up the sacroiliac joint?
Sacrum (S1) and the wing of the ilium
How does fusion of the sacroiliac joint benefit the animal?
It allows transmission of forces from the hindlimb to the axial skeleton to propel the animal forward during locomotion.
What is the first moveable joint in the hindlimb?
The hip joint
Why are dressage horses more prone to damage in their hind limbs than normal horses?
Horses naturally bear most of their weight on their forelimbs. However, dressage horses are taught to stand 'four square' for dressage and so are more prone to damaging their hind limbs.
What is the name of the ligament that runs from the sacrum to the ilium and ishium in large animal species?
The sacrotuberous ligament
What is the function of the sacrotuberous ligament?
It forms the lateral wall of the pelvic cavity and so provides protection for the structures inside
Is the sacrotuberous ligament present in dogs and cats?
Dogs - the caudal edge remains as a fibrous band
Cats - no
What happens to the sacrotuberous ligament during parturition? How does this help with parturition?
Relaxin softens the sacrotuberous ligament, sacroiliac joint and pelvic ligaments. This tips the pelvic inlet ventrally to provide a better angle for parturition.
What shape is the acetabulum?
What is the acetabulum extended by?
A cartilage labrium
What is the lunate surface of the acetabulum?
It is a crescent shaped articular surface for the hip joint, covered by hyaline cartilage
What fills the ventral deficit of the acetabular notch?
A transverse ligament
Which ligament attaches to the acetabular notch?
Ligament of the head of the femur
What type of bone is the femur?
What does the head of the femur articulate with to form the hip joint?
Which area of the femur does the ligament of the head of the femur attach to?
The fovea (depression of rough bone)
What area of the femur forms the angle between the head and body?
The neck of the femur
What is a palpable feature for locating the hip joint?
The greater trochanter
The greater trochanter is located on the medial/lateral aspect of the femur?
What is located on the caudal aspect of the distal femur?
Medial and lateral condyles
What part of the femur articulates with the tibia to form the stifle joint?
The lateral condyle
What is located between the medial and lateral condyles of the femur? And what is its function?
The intercondylar fossa - it is an area of rough bone that is the site of attachment of ligaments associated with the stifle joint
What is located on the cranial aspect of the distal femur?
Medial and lateral trochlear ridges
What is located between the medial and lateral trochlear ridges? And what is its function?
The trochlear groove - articulates with the patella
What type of bone is the patella?
What muscle is the patella embedded in?
The quadriceps muscle
How many centres of ossification are there that make up the femur?
True or false: the hip joint has collateral ligaments?
False - although it is a typical synovial joint
What provides the hip joint with stability?
The ligament of the head of the femur and surrounding muscle mass
Describe the blood supply of the femur
The femur has vessels from the periosteum and medulla. Vessels run from the neck of the femur up to the head.
Why is femoral neck fracture serious?
If there is damage to the femoral neck then the blood supply to the head can be compromised
What is avascular necrosis of the head of the femur?
This is when you spontaneously lose blood supply to the head of the femur
Which three structures are palpable and form a triangle when palpating the hip joint?
Wing of pelvis, tuber ischium and the greater trochanter