BIO-1120: Chapter 7

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BIO-1120: Chapter 7
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2014-12-21 14:05:55
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  1. Actin
    a globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist helically about each other, forming microfilaments (acting filaments) in muscle and other kinds of cells)
  2. Basal Body
    a eukaryotic cell structure consisting of a "9 + 0" arrangement of microtubule triplets; the basal body may organize the microtubule assembly of a cilium or flagellum and is structurally very similar to the centriole
  3. Cell Fractionation
    the disruption of a cell and separation of its parts by centrifugation at successively higher speeds
  4. Cell Wall
    a protective layer external to the plasma membrane in the cells of plants, prokaryotes, fungi, and some protists; polysaccharides such as cellulose (in plants and some protists), chitin (in fungi), and peptidoglycan (in bacteria) are important structural components of cell walls
  5. Centrioles
    a structure in the centrosome of an animal cell composed of a cylinder of microtubule triplets arranged in a "9 + 0" pattern; a centrosome has a pair of centrioles
  6. Centrosome
    a structure present in the cytoplasm of animal cells that functions as a microtubule-organizing center and is important during cell division; a centrosome has two centrioles
  7. Central Vacuole
    in a mature plant cell, a large membranous sac with diverse roles in growth, storage, and sequestration of toxic substances
  8. Cilia/Cilium
    a short appendage containing microtubules in eukaryotic cells; a motile cilium is specialized for locomotion or moving fluid past the cell; it is formed from a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules (the "9 +2" arrangement) ensheathed in an extension of the plasma membrane; a primary cilium is usually nonmotile and plays a sensory and signaling role; it lacks the two inner microtubules (the "9 + 0" arrangement)
  9. Chloroplast
    an organelle found in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbn dioxide and water
  10. Chromatin
    the complex of DNA and proteins that makes up eukaryotic chromosomes, when the cell is not dividing, chromatin exists in its dispersed form, as a mass of very long, thin fibers that are not visible with a light microscope
  11. Chromosomes
    a cellular structure consisting of one DNA molecule and associated protein molecules; (in some contexts, such as genome sequencing, the term may refer to the DNA alone) a eukaryotic cell typically has multiple, linear chromosomes, which are located in the nucleus; a prokaryotic cell often has a single, circular chromosome, which is found in the nucleoid, a region that is not enclosed by a membrane
  12. Collagen
    a glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix of animal cells that forms strong fibers, found extensively in connective tissue and bone; the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom
  13. Contractile Vacuoles
    a membranous sac that helps move excess water out of certain freshwater protists
  14. Cortex
    (1) the outer region of cytoplasm in a eukaryotic cell, lying just under the plasma membrane, that has a more gel-like consistency than the inner regions due to the presence of multiple microfilaments; (2) in plants, ground tissue that is between the vascular tissue and dermal tissue in a root or eudicot stem
  15. Cristae
    an infolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion; the inner membrane houses electron transport chains and molecules of the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP (ATP synthase)
  16. Cytoplasm
    the contents of the cell bounded by the plasma membrane; in eukaryotes, the portion exclusive of the nucleus
  17. Cytoplasmic Streaming
    a circular flow of cytoplasm, involving interactions of myosin and actin filaments, that speeds the distribution of materials within cells
  18. Cytoskeleton
    a network of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments that extend throughout the cytoplasm and serve a variety of mechanical, transport, and signaling functions
  19. Cytosol
    the semifluid portion of the cytoplasm
  20. Dyneins
    in cilia and flagella, a large motor protein extending from one microtubule doublet to the adjacent doublet; ATP hydrolysis drives changes in dynein shape that lead to bending of cilia and flagella
  21. Electron Microscope (EM)
    a microscope that uses magnets to focus an electron beam on or through a specimen, resulting in a practical resolution that is 100-fold greater than that of a light microscope using standard techniques; a transmission electron microscope (TEM) is used to study the internal structure of thin sections of cells; a scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to study the fine details of cell surfaces
  22. Endomembrane System
    the collection of membranes inside and surrounding a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesciles; includes the plasma membrane, the nuclear envelope, the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vesciles, and vacuoles
  23. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    an extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded (rough) and ribosome-free (smooth) regions
  24. Endosymbiont Theory
    the theory that mitochrondria and plastids, including chloroplasts, originated as prokaryotic cells engulfed by a host cell; the engulfed cell and its host cell then evolved into a single organism
  25. Eukaryotic Cell
    a type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; organisms with eukaryotic cells (protists, plants, fungi, and animals) are called eukaryotes
  26. Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
    the meshwork surrounding animal cells, consisting of glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and proteoglycans synthesized and secreted by cells
  27. Fibronectrin
    an extracellular glycoprotein secreted by animal cells that helps them attach to the extracellular matrix
  28. Flagella
    a long, cellular appendage specialized for locomotion; like motile cilia, eukaryotic flagella have a core with nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules (the "9 + 2" arrangement) ensheathed in an extensions of the plasma membrane; prokaryotic flagella have a different structure
  29. Food Vacuoles
    a membranous sac formed by phagocytosis of microorganisms or particles to be used as food by the cell
  30. Glycoprotein
    a protein with one or more covalently attached carbohydrates
  31. Golgi Apparatus
    an organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of flat memrbanous sacs that modify, store, and route products of the endoplasmic reticulum and synthesize some products, notably noncellulose carbohydrates
  32. Granum
    a stack of membrane-bounded thylakoids in the chloroplast; grana function in the light reactions of photosynthesis
  33. Integrin
    in animal cells, a transmembrane receptor protein with two subunits that interconnects the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton
  34. Intermediate Filament
    a component of the cytoskeleton that includes filaments intermediate in szie between microtubules and microfilaments
  35. Light Microscope (LM)
    an optical instrument with lenses that refract (bend) visible light to magnify images of specimens
  36. Lysosome
    a membrane-enclosed sac of hydrolytic enzymes found in the cytoplasm of animal cells and some protists
  37. Microfilaments
    a cable composed of actin proteins in the cytoplasm of almost every eukaryotic cell, making up part of the cytoskeleton and acting alone or with mysoin to cause cell contraction; also called an actin filament
  38. Microtubules
    a hollow rod composed of tubulin proteins that makes up part of the cytoskeleton in all eukaryotic cells and is found in cilia and flagella
  39. Middle Lamella
    in plants, a thing layer of adhesive extracellular material, primarily pectin, found between the primary walls of adjacent young cells
  40. Mitochondria
    an organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration; uses oxygen to break down organic molecules and synthesize ATP
  41. Mitochondrial Matrix
    the compartment of the mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane and containing enzymes and substrates for the citric acid cycle, as well as ribosomes and DNA
  42. Motor Proteins
    a protein that interacts with cytoskeletal elements and other cell components, producing movement of the whole cell or parts of the cell
  43. Myosin
    a type of mot protein that associates into filaments that interact with actin filaments to cause cell contraction
  44. Nuclear Lamina
    a netlike array of protein filaments that lines the inner surface of the nuclear envelope and helps maintain the shape of the nucleus
  45. Nucleoid
    a non-membrane enclosed region in a prokaryotic cell where its chromosome is located
  46. Nucleolus
    a specialized structure in the nucleus, consisting of chromosomal regions containing ribosomal (RNA (rRNA) genes along with ribosomal proteins imported from the cytoplasm; site of rRNA synthesis and ribosomal subunit assmebly
  47. Nucleus
    (1) an atom's central core, containing proteins and neutrons; (2) the organelle of a eukaryotic cell that contains the genetic material in the form of chromosomes, made up of chromatin; (3) a cluster of neurons
  48. Organelles
    any of several membrane-enclosed structures with specialized functions, suspended in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells
  49. Peroxisome
    an organelle containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen atoms from various substrates to oxygen (O2) producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
  50. Phagocytosis
    a type of endocytosis in which large particulate substances or small organisms are taken up by a cell; it is carried out by some protists and by certain immune cells of animals (in mammals, mainly macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells)
  51. Plasma Membrane
    the membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a slective barrier, regulating the cell's chemical composition
  52. Plasmodesmata
    an open channel through the cell wall that connects the cytoplasm of adjacent plant cells, allowing water, small solutes, and some larger molecules to pass between cells
  53. Plastids
    one of a family of closely related organelles that includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and amyloplasts; plastids are found in cells of photosynthetic eukaryotes
  54. Primary Cell Wall
    in plants, a relatively thing and flexible layer that surrounds the plasma membrane of a young cell
  55. Prokaryotic Cell
    a type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; organisms with prokaryotic cells (bacteria and archaea) are called prokaryotes
  56. Proteoglycans
    a large molecule consisting of a small core protein with many carbohydrate chains attached, found in extracellular matrix of animal cells; a proteoglycan may consist of up to 95% carbyhydrate
  57. Pseudopodia
    a cellular extensions of amoeboid cells used in moving and feeding
  58. Ribosomes
    a complex of rRNA and protein molecules that functions as site of proteins synthesis in the cytoplasm; consisting of a large and a small subunit; in eukaryotic cells, each subunit is assembled in the nucleolus
  59. Rough ER
    that portion of the endoplasmic reticulum with ribosomes attached
  60. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
    a microscope that uses an electron beam to scan the surface of a sample, coated with metal atoms, to study details of its topography
  61. Secondary Cell Wall
    in plant cells, a strong and durable matrix that is often deposited in several laminated layers around the plasma membrane and provides protection and support
  62. Smooth ER
    that portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribosomes
  63. Stroma
    the dense fluid within the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane and containing ribosomes and DNA; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water
  64. Thylakoids
    a flattened, membranous sac inside a chloroplast; thylakoids often exist in stacks called grana that are interconnected; their membranes contain molecular "machinery" used to convert light energy to chemical energy
  65. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
    a microscope that passes and electron beam through very thin sections stained with metal atoms and is primarily used to study the internal ultrastructure of cells
  66. Transport Vesciles
    a small membranous sac in a eukaryotic cell's cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by the cell
  67. Vacuoles
    a membrane-bounded vesicle whose specialized function varies in different kinds of cells
  68. Vesicles
    a membranous sac in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell

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