Stifle and Hock Joint

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Anonymous
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292028
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Stifle and Hock Joint
Updated:
2014-12-22 07:08:08
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Stifle Hock Anatomy
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Vet Med - Module 7
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  1. What type of bone are the tibia and fibula?
    Long bones
  2. Which bone is weight bearing: tibia or fibula?
    Tibia
  3. The fibula is located on the ... aspect of the limb?
    lateral
  4. True or false: the fibula is present in large species?
    False
  5. What palpable structures are present on the distal end of the fibula?
    The medial malleolus and lateral malleolus
  6. What ligaments attach to the medial and lateral malleoli of the fibula?
    The medial and lateral collateral ligaments of the hock (tarsus)
  7. What makes up the tibial plate at the proximal end of the tibia
    The tibial plate made up of medal and lateral condyles.  Between these is an intercondylar ridge.
  8. What do the medial and lateral condyles of the tibia articulate with to make up the stifle joint?
    The medial and lateral condyles of the femur
  9. What is located on the lateral aspect of the proximal tibia?
    The tibial crest
  10. What palpable area of the tibia does the patellar ligament insert onto?
    The tibial tuberosity
  11. How many centres of ossification make up the tibia?  How many make up the fibula?
    Tibia = 4.  Fibula = 3.
  12. Which species retains a complete fibula?
    Pig
  13. What components make up the stifle joint?
    • The medial and lateral femoral condyles articulate with the medial and lateral tibial condyles.  Mensci are attached to the tibial condyles.
    • The femur and the patellar also articulate.
  14. What is the function of menisci?
    Menisci are located between the condyles of the stifle joint to make the articular surfaces match better.  This allows movement to occur between the femoral condyles and menisci (attached to tibial condyles).
  15. What are the non-articular components of the stifle joint?
    The intercondylar fossa of the tibia and intercondylar eminence of the femur
  16. What stabilises the stifle joint?
    Medial and lateral collateral ligaments and cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments
  17. How can you test for cruciate ligament rupture?
    Cranial drawer test - if the joint is unstable the tibial moves cranial relative to the femur
  18. What is the tendon of insertion of the quadriceps muscle?
    The patellar ligament
  19. What part of the femur articulates with the patella?
    The trochlear groove
  20. What prevents lateral movement of the patella?
    Medial and lateral trochlear ridges, medial and lateral femoro-patellar ligaments, fascia and retinaculum
  21. Describe the effect of proximal/distal movement of the patella on the stifle joint
    Proximal movement of the patella produces stifle extension.  Distal movement of the patella produces stifle flexion.
  22. What condition of the patella is common in Jack Russells?
    Patella luxation
  23. What can looking at the retropatellar fat pad on radiography tell you about the stifle joint?
    It can show if there is joint effusion
  24. How does the shape of the patella differ in cats?
    The patella is pointed in cats
  25. Describe the medial trochlear ridge in the horse
    It is larger than the lateral trochlear ridge and has a tubercle at its proximal end.
  26. How many patellar ligaments does the horse have?
    Three - medial, middle and lateral
  27. Describe the patellar locking mechanism
    The patella is pulled proximally as the stifle is extended.  The patella is then rotated medially and engages with the horizontal/resting surface of the trochlear groove.  The tubercle of the medial trochlear ridge now sits between the middle and medial patellar ligaments and this locks the joint in extension.  The patella is pulled proximally then back to midline to unlock.
  28. What condition can occur if the patellar locking system goes wrong?
    Upward fixation or 'locked patella'
  29. How many joint compartments are in the stifle?
    3 - femoro-patellar, lateral femoro-tibial, medial femoro-tibial
  30. What is the communication between joint compartments in the stifle like in a) dogs b) horses?
    • a) Good 
    • b) Poor/none
  31. The branches of which spinal nerves contribute to the lumbodorsal plexus?
    L5-S2
  32. List the different nerves that supply the hindlimb
    Gluteal, obturator, femoral, sciatic (tibial and fibular)
  33. What is the function of the a) dorsal b) medial c) cranial thigh muscles d) caudal thigh muscles?
    • a) Abduction
    • b) Adduction
    • c) Protraction and hip flexion
    • d) Retraction and hip extension
  34. List the muscles of the hindlimb
    Gluteal muscles, GAPE muscles, Quadriceps, Sartorius, Iliopsoas, Biceps femoris, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus
  35. The gluteal muscle is located on the ... aspect of the hindlimb?
    dorsal
  36. What is the origin and insertion of the gluteal muscles?
    • O = sacrum and pelvis
    • I = greater trochanter of femur
  37. What is the function of the Gluteal muscles?
    Hindlimb abduction (also hindlimb retractor/hip extensor in the horse)
  38. What is the nerve supply to the Gluteal muscles?
    Gluteal nerve
  39. The GAPE muscles are located on the ... aspect of the limb?
    medial
  40. List the different GAPE muscles?
    • Gracilis
    • Adductor 
    • Pectineus
    • External obturator
  41. What is the origin and insertion of the GAPE muscles?
    • O = ventral surface of the pelvis
    • I = medial aspect of the limb
  42. What is the function of the GAPE muscles?
    Hindlimb adductors
  43. What is the nerve supply to the GAPE muscles?
    Obturator nerve
  44. The Quadriceps are located on the ... aspect of the hindlimb?
    cranial
  45. What is the origin and insertion of the quadriceps muscles?
    • O = ilium, lateral femur, medial femur, cranial femur
    • I = tibial tuberosity
  46. What is the function of the Quadriceps?
    Stifle extensor (hip flexor and limb protractor)
  47. What is the nerve supply to the Quadriceps?
    Femoral nerve
  48. The Sartorius muscle is located on the ... aspect of the limb?
    cranial
  49. What is the origin and insertion of Sartorius?
    • O = ilium
    • I= femur and tibial tuberosity
  50. What is the function of Sartorius?
    Stifle extensor, hip flexor and limb protractor
  51. What is the nerve supply to Sartorius?
    Femoral nerve
  52. The Iliopsoas muscle is located on the ... aspect of the limb?
    cranial
  53. What is the origin and insertion of iliopsoas?
    • O = lumbar vertebrae and ilium 
    • I = medial proximal femur
  54. What is the function of Iliopsoas?
    Hip flexor and limb protractor
  55. What is the nerve supply to Iliopsoas?
    Femoral nerve
  56. Biceps femoris is located on the ... aspect of the limb?
    caudal
  57. What is the origin and insertion of biceps femoris?
    • O = tuber ischium
    • I = fascia latae, calcaneus
  58. What is the function of Biceps femoris?
    Hip extensor, hindlimb retractor, stifle flexor, hock extensor
  59. What is the nerve supply to Biceps femoris?
    Sciatic nerve
  60. Semitendinosus and Semimebranosus are located on the ... aspect of the limb?
    caudal
  61. What is the origin and insertion for a) Semitendinosus b) Semimembranosus
    • a) O = tuber ischium, I = tibia, calcaneus 
    • b) O = tuber ischium, I = femur and tibia
  62. What is the function of Semitendinosus and Semimembranosus?
    Hip extensors, hindlimb retractors, stifle flexors and hock extensors
  63. What is the nerve supply to Semitendinosus and Semimembranosus?
    Sciatic nerve
  64. True or false: abduction is possible in the hindlimb of horses?
    False - no abduction is possible due to the large muscle mass, ligament of the head of the femur and accessory ligament
  65. What is the additional function of the gluteal muscle in horses?
    Hindlimb retraction and hip extension
  66. What is the functional significance of the well developed thigh muscles of the horse?
    Horses have a rigid vertebral column and so propulsion from the powerful hindlimb retractor/hip extensor muscles is transferred through the fixed sacroiliac joint to allow the horse to gallop, rear, buck/kick and jump

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