The fibula is located on the ... aspect of the limb?
True or false: the fibula is present in large species?
What palpable structures are present on the distal end of the fibula?
The medial malleolus and lateral malleolus
What ligaments attach to the medial and lateral malleoli of the fibula?
The medial and lateral collateral ligaments of the hock (tarsus)
What makes up the tibial plate at the proximal end of the tibia
The tibial plate made up of medal and lateral condyles. Between these is an intercondylar ridge.
What do the medial and lateral condyles of the tibia articulate with to make up the stifle joint?
The medial and lateral condyles of the femur
What is located on the lateral aspect of the proximal tibia?
The tibial crest
What palpable area of the tibia does the patellar ligament insert onto?
The tibial tuberosity
How many centres of ossification make up the tibia? How many make up the fibula?
Tibia = 4. Fibula = 3.
Which species retains a complete fibula?
What components make up the stifle joint?
The medial and lateral femoral condyles articulate with the medial and lateral tibial condyles. Mensci are attached to the tibial condyles.
The femur and the patellar also articulate.
What is the function of menisci?
Menisci are located between the condyles of the stifle joint to make the articular surfaces match better. This allows movement to occur between the femoral condyles and menisci (attached to tibial condyles).
What are the non-articular components of the stifle joint?
The intercondylar fossa of the tibia and intercondylar eminence of the femur
What stabilises the stifle joint?
Medial and lateral collateral ligaments and cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments
How can you test for cruciate ligament rupture?
Cranial drawer test - if the joint is unstable the tibial moves cranial relative to the femur
What is the tendon of insertion of the quadriceps muscle?
The patellar ligament
What part of the femur articulates with the patella?
The trochlear groove
What prevents lateral movement of the patella?
Medial and lateral trochlear ridges, medial and lateral femoro-patellar ligaments, fascia and retinaculum
Describe the effect of proximal/distal movement of the patella on the stifle joint
Proximal movement of the patella produces stifle extension. Distal movement of the patella produces stifle flexion.
What condition of the patella is common in Jack Russells?
What can looking at the retropatellar fat pad on radiography tell you about the stifle joint?
It can show if there is joint effusion
How does the shape of the patella differ in cats?
The patella is pointed in cats
Describe the medial trochlear ridge in the horse
It is larger than the lateral trochlear ridge and has a tubercle at its proximal end.
How many patellar ligaments does the horse have?
Three - medial, middle and lateral
Describe the patellar locking mechanism
The patella is pulled proximally as the stifle is extended. The patella is then rotated medially and engages with the horizontal/resting surface of the trochlear groove. The tubercle of the medial trochlear ridge now sits between the middle and medial patellar ligaments and this locks the joint in extension. The patella is pulled proximally then back to midline to unlock.
What condition can occur if the patellar locking system goes wrong?
The gluteal muscle is located on the ... aspect of the hindlimb?
What is the origin and insertion of the gluteal muscles?
O = sacrum and pelvis
I = greater trochanter of femur
What is the function of the Gluteal muscles?
Hindlimb abduction (also hindlimb retractor/hip extensor in the horse)
What is the nerve supply to the Gluteal muscles?
The GAPE muscles are located on the ... aspect of the limb?
List the different GAPE muscles?
What is the origin and insertion of the GAPE muscles?
O = ventral surface of the pelvis
I = medial aspect of the limb
What is the function of the GAPE muscles?
What is the nerve supply to the GAPE muscles?
The Quadriceps are located on the ... aspect of the hindlimb?
What is the origin and insertion of the quadriceps muscles?
O = ilium, lateral femur, medial femur, cranial femur
I = tibial tuberosity
What is the function of the Quadriceps?
Stifle extensor (hip flexor and limb protractor)
What is the nerve supply to the Quadriceps?
The Sartorius muscle is located on the ... aspect of the limb?
What is the origin and insertion of Sartorius?
O = ilium
I= femur and tibial tuberosity
What is the function of Sartorius?
Stifle extensor, hip flexor and limb protractor
What is the nerve supply to Sartorius?
The Iliopsoas muscle is located on the ... aspect of the limb?
What is the origin and insertion of iliopsoas?
O = lumbar vertebrae and ilium
I = medial proximal femur
What is the function of Iliopsoas?
Hip flexor and limb protractor
What is the nerve supply to Iliopsoas?
Biceps femoris is located on the ... aspect of the limb?
What is the origin and insertion of biceps femoris?
O = tuber ischium
I = fascia latae, calcaneus
What is the function of Biceps femoris?
Hip extensor, hindlimb retractor, stifle flexor, hock extensor
What is the nerve supply to Biceps femoris?
Semitendinosus and Semimebranosus are located on the ... aspect of the limb?
What is the origin and insertion for a) Semitendinosus b) Semimembranosus
a) O = tuber ischium, I = tibia, calcaneus
b) O = tuber ischium, I = femur and tibia
What is the function of Semitendinosus and Semimembranosus?
Hip extensors, hindlimb retractors, stifle flexors and hock extensors
What is the nerve supply to Semitendinosus and Semimembranosus?
True or false: abduction is possible in the hindlimb of horses?
False - no abduction is possible due to the large muscle mass, ligament of the head of the femur and accessory ligament
What is the additional function of the gluteal muscle in horses?
Hindlimb retraction and hip extension
What is the functional significance of the well developed thigh muscles of the horse?
Horses have a rigid vertebral column and so propulsion from the powerful hindlimb retractor/hip extensor muscles is transferred through the fixed sacroiliac joint to allow the horse to gallop, rear, buck/kick and jump