Distal hindlimb muscles and tendons

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Anonymous
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292030
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Distal hindlimb muscles and tendons
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2014-12-22 07:38:17
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Muscle tendon Anatomy Hindlimb
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Vet Med - Module 7
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  1. What type of bone are the tarsal bones?
    Short bones
  2. Which bones make up the a) proximal b) middle c) distal row of the tarsus?
    • a) talus and calcaneus
    • b) central and 4th
    • c) 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th
    • (Note: 4th bridges the distal and middle rows)
  3. How do the tarsal bones differ in the horse?
    The arrangement is the same except the 1st and 2nd are fused and the 3rd is very large
  4. What are the different joints in the tarsus?
    • Tibio-tarsal joint
    • Proximal intertarsal joint
    • Distal intertarsal joint
    • Tarso-metatarsal joint
  5. Which direction does the calcaneus project in?
    A plantar direction
  6. What is the calcaneus the site of insertion for?
    The common calcanean tendon
  7. Where does most movement occur within the tarsus?
    Most = tibio-tarsal joint
  8. What adaption of the tarsus prevents collision of the forelimbs and hindlimb when an animal is running?
    The trochlea of the tarsus are not vertical which allows the hind limbs to move lateral to the forelimbs, preventing collision during locomotion (overreach injuries).
  9. What provides the tarsus with stability?
    Collateral ligametns (long and short), plantar ligaments, fibrocartilagenous reinforcement of joint capsule and retinaculum
  10. What type of horses can get injuries to their tarsal collateral ligaments?
    Dressage horses
  11. Which tarsal bone has more than one centre of ossification?
    Calcaneus - it has two
  12. What is 'bone spavin'?
    Hock degenerative disease.  New bone formation occurs and the joints may fuse.  If it affects the tibia-tarsal joint it has a very bad prognosis.
  13. List the distal hindlimb muscles
    Cranial tibial muscle, peroneus longus muscle, peroneus tertius muscle, long digital extensor muscle, common calcanean tendon, gastrocnemius muscle, superficial digital flexor muscle, deep digital flexor muscle
  14. What is the origin and insertion of the cranial tibial muscle?
    • O = proximal tibia 
    • I = metatarsal bones, medial aspect of hock
  15. What is the function of the cranial tibial muscle?
    Hock flexion
  16. What is the nerve supply to the cranial tibial muscle?
    Fibular branch of sciatic nerve
  17. What is the origin and insertion of the peroneus longs muscle?
    • O = lateral tibia and fibular 
    • I= plantar aspect of tarsus
  18. What is the origin and insertion of the peroneus tertius muscle?
    • O = lateral femoral condyle
    • I = 3rd metatarsal bone, lateral aspect of tarsus
  19. Which animal is the peroneus tertius muscle present in?
    Horse - it is not present in cats and dogs
  20. What is the function of the peroneus longs/pernoeus tertius muscles?
    Hock flexion
  21. What is the nerve supply to peroneus longs/peroneus tertius?
    Fibular branch of sciatic nerve
  22. What is the origin and insertion of the long digital extensor muscle?
    • O = extensor fossa (femur)
    • I = all digits
  23. What is the function of the long digital extensor muscle?
    Hock flexion and digital extension
  24. What is the nerve supply to the long digital extensor muscle?
    Fibular branch of the sciatic nerve
  25. What components make up the common calcanean tendon?
    • Biceps femoris, gracilis, and semitendinosus
    • Gastrocneumius
    • SDFT
  26. What is the function of the common calcanean tendon?
    Hock extension
  27. What is the origin and insertion of Gastrocneumius?
    • O = femur
    • I = calcaneus
  28. What is the function of Gastrocnemius?
    Hock extension (stifle flexion)
  29. What is the nerve supply to gastrocnemius?
    Tibial branch of the sciatic nerve
  30. What is the origin and insertion of the SDFT?
    • O = distal femur
    • I = calcaneus, all digits
  31. What is the function of the SDFT?
    Hock extension and digital flexion
  32. What is the nerve supply to the SDFT?
    Tibial branch of the sciatic nerve
  33. What is the origin and insertion of the DDFT?
    • O = tibia
    • I = all digits
  34. What is the function of the DDFT?
    Hock extension and digital flexion
  35. What is the nerve supply to the DDFT?
    Tibial branch of the sciatic nerve
  36. List different possible causes of swelling around the tarsus
    • Joint effusion
    • Tendon sheath effusion
    • Distended medial saphenous vein
    • Seroma - capped hock
    • 'Bursitis' - calcanean tendon
    • Plantar ligament damage - curb
  37. What components make up the reciprocal apparatus of the horse?
    Peroneus tertius and SDFT
  38. What is the function of the reciprocal apparatus?
    The reciprocal apparatus links the stifle and hock together i.e. flexion of the stifle results in flexion of the tarsus / extension of the stifle results in extension of the tarsus
  39. In what direction do horses kick?
    Straight back - never stand behind a horse!
  40. What components make up the hindlimb stay apparatus?
    • Hip - no passive system
    • Stifle - patellar locking mechanism
    • Hock - reciprocal apparatus
    • MTP joint - suspensory apparatus (suspensory ligament, proximal sesamoids, distal sesamoidean ligaments, long digital extensor)
    • MTP, PIP and DIP joints - SDFT, DDFT and accessory ligament, annular ligaments

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