Hindlimb nerve, blood and lymph supply

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Anonymous
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292031
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Hindlimb nerve, blood and lymph supply
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2014-12-22 10:01:23
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Nerve Blood Lymph Anatomy Hindlimb
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Vet Med - Module 7
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  1. List the nerves that supply the hindlimb
    Gluteal nerve, obturator nerve, femoral nerve, sciatic nerve, tibial and fibular branches of sciatic nerve
  2. Describe the route of the gluteal nerve
    The gluteal nerve runs over the dorsal surface of the body of the ilium
  3. What muscles does the gluteal nerve innervate?  And what is their function?
    Gluteal muscles - hindlimb abduction
  4. Does the gluteal nerve innervate any areas of cutaneous sensation?
    No
  5. Describe the route of the obturator nerve
    It passes through the obturator foramen to the medial thigh
  6. What muscles does the obturator nerve innervate?  And what is their function?
    GAPE muscles (gracilis, adductor, pectineus, external obturator) - hindlimb adduction
  7. Does the obturator nerve innervate any areas of cutaneous sensation?
    No
  8. What can happen to the obturator nerve in cows during parturition?  What affect does this have on the cows after parturition?
    • The obturator nerve can become crushed between the foetus and the pelvis.  This commonly occurs with oversized calves.
    • The cows lose the ability to adduct their limbs and, as cows get up hindlimb first, this means they 'do the splits' and can easily give up and become a 'down cow'.
  9. Why is a down cow such a problem?  What do farmers sometimes do to help a down cow?
    The weight of their abdominal contents compresses their muscles, which lose their blood supply and become damaged. Farmers sometimes will hoist their cow and suspend them from their hip bones as there is far better chance of them recovering if their circulation is not impaired.
  10. Why is this not a common problem in horses?
    Horses do not tend to have oversized foals and they get up forelimbs first
  11. Describe the route of the femoral nerve
    Short route to cranial thigh
  12. What muscles does the femoral nerve innervate?  And what is their function?
    Quadriceps, iliopsoas, sartorius - hip flexors, limb protractors, stifle extensors
  13. Does the femoral nerve innervate any areas of cutaneous sensation?
    Yes - the saphenous branch innervates the medial thigh
  14. What reflex is the femoral nerve responsible for innervating?
    The patellar reflex
  15. Describe the patellar reflex
    Hit the patellar ligament and sensation travels up via the femoral nerve into the spinal chord where a shortcut occurs and information is sent back down into the leg to contract the quadriceps muscle.
  16. What would damage to the femoral nerve result in?
    The animal would be unable to extend the stifle and weight bear.  The patellar reflex would also be lost.
  17. Describe the route of the sciatic nerve
    The sciatic nerve runs over the dorsal surface of the body of the ilium, passes caudal to the hip and runs deep to biceps femoris
  18. What muscles does the sciatic nerve innervate? And what is their function?
    Semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris - hip extensors, limb retractors, stifle flexors
  19. Does the sciatic nerve innervate any areas of cutaneous sensation?
    No
  20. What are the two branches of the sciatic nerve that supply the distal hindlimb?
    Tibial and fibular
  21. What muscles does the tibial nerve innervate?  And what is their function?
    Gastrocnemius, SDFT, DDFT - hock extensors and digital flexors
  22. Does the tibial nerve innervate any areas of cutaneous sensation?
    Yes - the caudal/plantar aspect of the limb
  23. What muscles does the fibular nerve innervate? And what is their function?
    Peroneus longus, peroneus tertius, long digital extensor, cranial tibial muscle - hock flexors and digital extensors
  24. Does the fibular nerve innervate any areas of cutaneous sensation?
    Yes - the cranial/dorsal aspect of the limb and lateral thigh
  25. What would happen to an animal if its sciatic nerve was damaged?  What would the animal still be able to do?
    • Damage to the sciatic nerve would result in loss of supply to hip extensors, stifle flexors, hock extensors, digital flexors, hock flexors, digital extensors and cutaneous sensation of the limb.
    • The animal would still be able to adduct, abduct, protract, flex the hip and extend the stifle.
  26. Describe the distal hindlimb nerve supply in horses
    The plantar nerves become plantar digital nerves.  There are also plantar metatarsal nerves and dorsal metatarsal nerves.
  27. Describe the arterial supply to the hindlimb
    External iliac artery - femoral artery - popliteal artery, etc
  28. Describe the superficial drainage system of the hindlimb
    The lateral and medial saphenous veins are present on the hindlimb
  29. What are the cranial and caudal boundaries of the femoral triangle?
    • Cranial - sartorius
    • Caudal - pectineus (and adductor)
  30. What are the contents of the femoral triangle?
    Femoral vein, artery and nerve
  31. What can you use the femoral triangle for?
    To take a pulse or insert intravascular catheters
  32. What lymph nodes are present in the hindlimb? Where are they located?
    Popliteal lymph nodes.  Caudal to the stifle joint.

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