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How is the hindlimb attached to the trunk in the common domestic species and what is the functional significance of this?
Sacroiliac joint - this is fused so no movement occurs between the hindlimb and axial skeleton. This allows the forces generated by the hind limbs to be efficiently transferred to the trunk for forward propulsion.
How do extrinsic and intrinsic muscles int he hindlimb relate to each other and why is this the case?
Extrinsic muscles movem the limb relative to the trunk. They originate on the axial skeleton & pelvis and insert onto the appendicular skeleton. Intrinsic muscles both originate and insert onto the appendicular skeleton. They function to extend and flex the joints of the limb. However the pelvis acts as part of the axial skeleton therefore overlap occurs between hindlimb extrinsic and intrinsic muscles and their functions.
How would you classify the following bones and what is the function of each? a) pelvis b) femur c) tibia and fibula d) proximal sesamoids e) tarsal bones
- a) Flat bone - large surface area and protection of underlying structures
- b) Long bone - support and leverage within the limb
- c) Long bone - support and leverage within the limb
- d) Sesamoid bone - redirect tendons over angled surfaces and protect them from friction
- e) Short bones - large range of movement and shock absorption
Which structure runs between the fovea of the head of the femur and the acetabular fossa in life? What is its function?
Ligament of the head of the femur. Its function is to provide stability for the hip joint (helps keep the head of the femur inside the acetabular fossa)
Which structure inserts onto the greater trochanter and which is its function in each species?
- Gluteal muscles
- Dog - hindlimb abductors
- Horse - hindlimb retractor and hip extensor
Which structure articulates with the trochlear groove of the femur and what is its function?
Patella - works with the quadriceps and sartorial muscles to produce extension of the stifle joint
Which aspect of the limb is the fibula located on and would you ever have to repair a fracture of it? Give anatomical reasons for your answer
Lateral aspect. Might repair fractures of the distal fibula if you were concerned about the stability of the tarsus joint i.e. if the lateral malleolus was affected
Which aspect of the limb is the calcaneus located on?
Plantar and lateral aspect
Which palpable features are the landmarks for assessing pelvic symmetry and identifying hip dislocation?
Greater trochanter, tuber ischium and wing of ilium
Which palpable features are the sites of attachment of the patellar ligament?
Tibial tuberosity and patella
Which palpable features are the sites of attachment of the collateral ligaments of the stifle joint and which bone are they located on?
Medial and lateral epicondyles of the femur
Which palpable features are the sites of attachment of collateral ligaments of the hock joint and which bones are they located on?
Medial and lateral malleolus - tibia and fibula
What is the function of the tendon that inserts onto the calcanean tuberosity and what are its components?
- Hock extension
- Biceps femoris; gracilis; semitendinosus, Gastrocnemius and SDFT
Where is the popliteal lymph node located?
Caudal to the stifle joint
How does the hip compensate for having poor collateral ligaments?
It has the ligament of the head of the femur and muscular support
Why is the femoral head vulnerable to loss of its blood supply?
As the blood supply to the femoral head runs through the femoral neck which is vulnerable to fractures
Which test can be used to diagnose cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs? Briefly explain the rational behind this test
Cranial drawer test - if the cruciate ligament is ruptured there will be cranial movement of the tibia. If it is intact there should be no cranial movement.
What would happen if the patella luxated medially (moved out of the trochlear groove)? Which structures would usually prevent this from happening?
- The stifle would be unable to extend.
- Retinaculum, medial and lateral femoro-patellar ligaments and straight patellar ligaments and trochlear ridges
Where does most of the movement occur in the tarsal joint?
How do the position of the thigh muscles relate to their function?
- Dorsal - abductor
- Medial - adductor
- Cranial - protractor, hip flexors, stifle extensors
- Caudal - retractor, hip extensors, stifle flexors
What is the common function of the muscles supplied by the a) gluteal b) obturator c) femoral d) sciatic nerves?
- a) Abductors
- b) Adductors
- c) Hip flexors, stifle extensors, limb protraction
- d) Hip extensors, stifle flexors, limb retraction
Which muscles share a common origin on the tuber ischium?
Biceps femoris, semitendinosus and semimembranosus
Which muscles insert onto the patella and what is their common function?
Sartorius and quadriceps - stifle extensors
How do the position of the tibial muscles relate to their function?
- Cranial = tarsal flexor / digital extensor
- Caudal = tarsal extensor / digital flexor
What is the common function to the muscles supplied by the a) tibial b) fibular nerve?
- a) tarsal extensor / digital flexor
- b) tarsal flexor / digital extensor
Which muscles insert onto the calcanean tuberosity and what is their common function?
Gastrocnemius, SDFT, Gracilis; biceps femoris; semitendinosus - tarsal extensors
How can you tell if a dog is skeletally mature on radiographs?
The absence of growth plates
What is the function of muscles originating on the wing of the ilium in dogs and what is their nerve supply?
- Hindlimb abductors.
- Gluteal nerve.
Which important structure passes through the obturator foramen and what is its function?
- Obturator nerve
- Supplies hindlimb adductor muscles
Which muscles originate on the tuber ischium and what is their nerve supply?
Biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus - sciatic nerve
Which soft tissue structures run between the intercondylar fossa and intercondylar eminence? What is their function?
- Cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments
- Prevent rotation of the stifle joint and hold the tibia and femur together
How would you classify the patella and what is/are the functions of this type of bone?
Sesamoid - provide smooth surface for tendons running over joint angles and redirect forces running over the joint
What is the maximum number of sesamoid bones that can be associated with the stifle joint in the common domestic species?
Which structure is the patella embedded in and what is its function?
- Quadriceps (and sartorius) muscle
- Extension of stifle
How would you classify the tarsal bones?
Where does most movement occur at the tarsus joint?
Which important structure inserts onto the calcanean tuberosity and what is its function?
Common calcanean tendon - tarsus extension
Which important structures attach to the medial and lateral malleoli?
Medial and lateral collateral ligaments of the tarsus
If a dog was to suffer from sciatic nerve damage what would be the effect within the hindlimb in terms of function and sensation?
- Function - loss of function of biceps femurs, semitendinosus, semimembranosus. Loss of hip extension and stifle flexion, limb retraction, flexion and extension of tarsus and digits.
- Sensation - loss of sensation to caudal/plantar aspect of entire limb