Hindlimb Anatomy Demonstration Questions

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Anonymous
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292033
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Hindlimb Anatomy Demonstration Questions
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2014-12-22 10:52:54
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Hindlimb Anatomy
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Vet Med - Module 7
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  1. How is the hindlimb attached to the trunk in the common domestic species and what is the functional significance of this?
    Sacroiliac joint - this is fused so no movement occurs between the hindlimb and axial skeleton.  This allows the forces generated by the hind limbs to be efficiently transferred to the trunk for forward propulsion.
  2. How do extrinsic and intrinsic muscles int he hindlimb relate to each other and why is this the case?
    Extrinsic muscles movem the limb relative to the trunk.  They originate on the axial skeleton & pelvis and insert onto the appendicular skeleton.  Intrinsic muscles both originate and insert onto the appendicular skeleton.  They function to extend and flex the joints of the limb.  However the pelvis acts as part of the axial skeleton therefore overlap occurs between hindlimb extrinsic and intrinsic muscles and their functions.
  3. How would you classify the following bones and what is the function of each? a) pelvis b) femur c) tibia and fibula d) proximal sesamoids e) tarsal bones
    • a) Flat bone - large surface area and protection of underlying structures
    • b) Long bone - support and leverage within the limb
    • c) Long bone - support and leverage within the limb
    • d) Sesamoid bone - redirect tendons over angled surfaces and protect them from friction
    • e) Short bones - large range of movement and shock absorption
  4. Which structure runs between the fovea of the head of the femur and the acetabular fossa in life?  What is its function?
    Ligament of the head of the femur.  Its function is to provide stability for the hip joint (helps keep the head of the femur inside the acetabular fossa)
  5. Which structure inserts onto the greater trochanter and which is its function in each species?
    • Gluteal muscles
    • Dog - hindlimb abductors
    • Horse - hindlimb retractor and hip extensor
  6. Which structure articulates with the trochlear groove of the femur and what is its function?
    Patella - works with the quadriceps and sartorial muscles to produce extension of the stifle joint
  7. Which aspect of the limb is the fibula located on and would you ever have to repair a fracture of it?  Give anatomical reasons for your answer
    Lateral aspect.  Might repair fractures of the distal fibula if you were concerned about the stability of the tarsus joint i.e. if the lateral malleolus was affected
  8. Which aspect of the limb is the calcaneus located on?
    Plantar and lateral aspect
  9. Which palpable features are the landmarks for assessing pelvic symmetry and identifying hip dislocation?
    Greater trochanter, tuber ischium and wing of ilium
  10. Which palpable features are the sites of attachment of the patellar ligament?
    Tibial tuberosity and patella
  11. Which palpable features are the sites of attachment of the collateral ligaments of the stifle joint and which bone are they located on?
    Medial and lateral epicondyles of the femur
  12. Which palpable features are the sites of attachment of collateral ligaments of the hock joint and which bones are they located on?
    Medial and lateral malleolus - tibia and fibula
  13. What is the function of the tendon that inserts onto the calcanean tuberosity and what are its components?
    • Hock extension 
    • Biceps femoris; gracilis; semitendinosus, Gastrocnemius and SDFT
  14. Where is the popliteal lymph node located?
    Caudal to the stifle joint
  15. How does the hip compensate for having poor collateral ligaments?
    It has the ligament of the head of the femur and muscular support
  16. Why is the femoral head vulnerable to loss of its blood supply?
    As the blood supply to the femoral head runs through the femoral neck which is vulnerable to fractures
  17. Which test can be used to diagnose cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs?  Briefly explain the rational behind this test
    Cranial drawer test - if the cruciate ligament is ruptured there will be cranial movement of the tibia.  If it is intact there should be no cranial movement.
  18. What would happen if the patella luxated medially (moved out of the trochlear groove)?  Which structures would usually prevent this from happening?
    • The stifle would be unable to extend.  
    • Retinaculum, medial and lateral femoro-patellar ligaments and straight patellar ligaments and trochlear ridges
  19. Where does most of the movement occur in the tarsal joint?
    Tibio-tarsal joint
  20. How do the position of the thigh muscles relate to their function?
    • Dorsal - abductor
    • Medial - adductor
    • Cranial - protractor, hip flexors, stifle extensors
    • Caudal - retractor, hip extensors, stifle flexors
  21. What is the common function of the muscles supplied by the a) gluteal b) obturator c) femoral d) sciatic nerves?
    • a) Abductors
    • b) Adductors
    • c) Hip flexors, stifle extensors, limb protraction
    • d) Hip extensors, stifle flexors, limb retraction
  22. Which muscles share a common origin on the tuber ischium?
    Biceps femoris, semitendinosus and semimembranosus
  23. Which muscles insert onto the patella and what is their common function?
    Sartorius and quadriceps - stifle extensors
  24. How do the position of the tibial muscles relate to their function?
    • Cranial = tarsal flexor / digital extensor
    • Caudal = tarsal extensor / digital flexor
  25. What is the common function to the muscles supplied by the a) tibial b) fibular nerve?
    • a) tarsal extensor / digital flexor
    • b) tarsal flexor / digital extensor
  26. Which muscles insert onto the calcanean tuberosity and what is their common function?
    Gastrocnemius, SDFT, Gracilis; biceps femoris; semitendinosus - tarsal extensors
  27. How can you tell if a dog is skeletally mature on radiographs?
    The absence of growth plates
  28. What is the function of muscles originating on the wing of the ilium in dogs and what is their nerve supply?
    • Hindlimb abductors.  
    • Gluteal nerve.
  29. Which important structure passes through the obturator foramen and what is its function?
    • Obturator nerve
    • Supplies hindlimb adductor muscles
  30. Which muscles originate on the tuber ischium and what is their nerve supply?
    Biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus - sciatic nerve
  31. Which soft tissue structures run between the intercondylar fossa and intercondylar eminence?  What is their function?
    • Cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments
    • Prevent rotation of the stifle joint and hold the tibia and femur together
  32. How would you classify the patella and what is/are the functions of this type of bone?
    Sesamoid - provide smooth surface for tendons running over joint angles and redirect forces running over the joint
  33. What is the maximum number of sesamoid bones that can be associated with the stifle joint in the common domestic species?
    • Dog - 4 max
    • Horse - 1 max
  34. Which structure is the patella embedded in and what is its function?
    • Quadriceps (and sartorius) muscle
    • Extension of stifle
  35. How would you classify the tarsal bones?
    Short bones
  36. Where does most movement occur at the tarsus joint?
    Tibio-tarsal joint
  37. Which important structure inserts onto the calcanean tuberosity and what is its function?
    Common calcanean tendon - tarsus extension
  38. Which important structures attach to the medial and lateral malleoli?
    Medial and lateral collateral ligaments of the tarsus
  39. If a dog was to suffer from sciatic nerve damage what would be the effect within the hindlimb in terms of function and sensation?
    • Function - loss of function of biceps femurs, semitendinosus, semimembranosus.  Loss of hip extension and stifle flexion, limb retraction, flexion and extension of tarsus and digits.
    • Sensation - loss of sensation to caudal/plantar aspect of entire limb

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