Research- Key Points
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Lalli & Vollmer 99' (JABA)
Competition between positive and negative reinforcement in the treatment of escape behavior.
Smith & Iwata 97'
Antecedent influences on behavior disorders (JABA)
1. Historical perspective (Bijeu, Skinner, Michael)
2. ABA literature replete with improper examples of how antecedents are referred to as Sds instead of MOs.
Eg., in Cameron et al (1992), the authors suggest an Sd problem. The difference in the bar of soap versus the liquid.
**Carr and Durrand suggest that the SIB that occurred when demands were placed upon the subject were Sds.
If you call them setting events, they are not tied to the functional relationship and provide an incomplete analysis that our science does not benefit from.
Pizza et al 97' (JABA)
The use of positive and negative reinforcement in the treatment of escape-maintained destructive behavior.
Skinner 45' (Psychological Review)
The operational analysis of psychological terms
1. Extends analysis to private events
2. Feelings, emotions, etc., are tacts of private events and can all be analyzed behaviorally
3. Beginning of radical behaviorism
Theoretical/conceptual paper that extended the analysis of public events to private stimuli.
He explains how VB, feelings, emotions, beliefs, and intentions are tacts of private events and can all be analyzed behaviorally and how we don’t need to go outside of our science.
Operant conditioning inside the skin and outside the skin are governed by the same principles.
Beginning of radical behaviorism. The interpretive analysis is what distinguishes a radical behaviorist from a methodological behaviorist.
The operational definition of a psychological term is the conditions under which you say it and the contingencies (collateral effects, public accompaniment, and induction or stimulus generalization) that shaped you.
The Behavior of Organisms
1. Defines operant conditioning
2. Outlines the philosophy of science
** Implies that principles apply to verbal behavior
Defines operant conditioning as behavior that operates on the environment and is strengthened or weakened through the operation.
He also defines the behavioral principles (reinforcer, punisher, extinction, Sd, etc.) of which operant behavior is a function.
He demonstrated and explained how operant conditioning was the process for all “learned” behavior.
This was significant because prior to that behaviorists only had Pavlov/respondent/small%
Outlines the philosophy of science and what we now call the experimental analysis of behavior. That is where he stated, no statistical design or large groups but rather an inductive/dynamic process or single subject design.
He discovered the principles of stimulus control, reinforcement, extinction, etc. through this dynamic process and suggested that is the way to teach.
We ought not to just analyze operant conditioning in terms of reinforcement and consequences. Examine prior events from the beginning because they influence behavior immediately.
**Implies that principles apply to VB: “…I may say that the only differences I expect to see revealed between the behavior of rat and man (aside from enormous differences in complexity) lie in the field of verbal behavior.”
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