BIO-1120: Chapter 8

Card Set Information

Author:
UndependableAids
ID:
292037
Filename:
BIO-1120: Chapter 8
Updated:
2014-12-22 13:36:20
Tags:
Biology
Folders:
BIO-1120
Description:
Study.
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user UndependableAids on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Active Transport
    the movement of a substance across a cell membrane against its concentration or electrochemical gradient, mediated by specific transport proteins and requiring an expenditure of energy
  2. Amphipathic
    having both hydrophilic region and a hydrophobic region
  3. Aquaporin
    a channel protein in a cellular membrane that specifically facilitates osmosis, the diffusion of free water across the membrane
  4. Concentration Gradient
    a region along which the density of a chemical substance increases or decreases
  5. Cotransport
    the coupling of the "downhill" diffusion of one substance to the "uphill" transport of another against its own concentration gradient
  6. Diffusion
    the random thermal motion of particles of liquids, gases, or solids; in the presence of a concentration or electrochemical gradient, diffusion results in the net movement of a substance from a region where it is more concentrated to a region where it is less concentrated
  7. Electrochemical Gradient
    the diffusion gradient of an ion, which is affected by both the concentration difference of an ion across membrane (a chemical force) and the ion's tendency to move relative to the membrane potential (an electrical force)
  8. Electrogenic Pump
    an active transport protein that generates voltage across a membrane while pumping ions
  9. Endocytosis
    cellular uptake of biological molecules and particulate mater via formation of vesicles from the plasma membrane
  10. Exocytosis
    the cellular secretion of biological molecules by the fusion of vesiciles containing them with plasma membrane
  11. Facilitated Diffusion
    the passage of molecules or ions down their electrochemical gradient across a biological membrane with the assistance of specific transmembrane with the assistance of specific transmembrane transport proteins, requiring no energy expenditure
  12. Flaccid
    limp; lacking turgor (stiffness or firmness), as in a plant cell in surroundings where there is a tendency for water to leave the cell; (a walled cell becomes flaccid if it has a higher water potential than its surroundings, resulting in the loss of water)
  13. Gated Channels
    a transmembrane protein channel that opens or closes in response to a particular stimulus
  14. Glycolipids
    a lipid with one or more covalently attached carbohydrates
  15. Glycoproteins
    a protein with one or more covalently attached carbohydrates
  16. Hypertonic
    referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to lose water
  17. Hypotonic
    referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to take up water
  18. Integral Proteins
    a transmembrane protein with hydrophobic regions that extend into and often completely span the hydrophobic interior of the membrane and the hydrophilic regions in contact with the aqueous solution on one or both sides of the membrane (or lining the channel in the case of a channel protein)
  19. Ion Channels
    a transmembrane protein channel that allows a specific ion to diffuse across the membrane down its concentration or electrochemical gradient
  20. Isotonic
    referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, causes no net movement of water into or out of the cell
  21. Ligand
    a molecule that binds specifically to another molecule, usually a larger one
  22. Membrane Potential
    the difference in a electrically charge (voltage) across a cell's plasma membrane due to the differential distribution of ions; membrane potential affects the activity of excitable cells and the transmembrane movement of all charges substances
  23. Osmoregulation
    regulation of solute concentrations and water balance by a cell or organism
  24. Osmosis
    the diffusion of free water across a selectively permeable membrane
  25. Passive Transport
    the diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane with no expenditure of energy
  26. Peripheral Proteins
    a protein loosely bound to the surface of a membrane or to part of an integral protein and not embedded in the lipid bilayer
  27. Phagocytosis
    a type of endocytosis in which large particulate substances or small organisms are taken up by a cell; it is carried out by some protists and by certain immune cells of animals (in mammals, mainly macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells)
  28. Pinocytosis
    a type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extraceullular fluid and its dissolved solutes
  29. Plasmolysis
    a phenomenon in walled cells in which the cytoplasm shrivels and the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall; occurs when the cell loses water to a hypertonic environment
  30. Proton Pump
    an active transport protein in a cell membrane that uses ATP to transport hydrogen ions out of a cell against their concentration gradient, generating a membrane potential in the process
  31. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
    the movement of specific molecules into a cell by the infolding of vesicles containing the proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being taken in; enables a cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substances
  32. Selective Permeability
    a property of biological membranes that allows them to regulate the passage of substances across them
  33. Sodium-Potassium Pump
    a transport protein in the plasma membrane of animal cells that actively transports sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell
  34. Transport Protein
    a transmembrane protein that helps a certain substance or class of closely related substances to cross the membrane
  35. Turgid
    swollen or distended, as in plant cells; (a walled cell becomes turgid if it has a lower water potential than its surroundings, resulting in entry of water)

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview