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Name a country/group of people in the high stationary part of the dtm
Name a country in the early expanding stage of the DTM
Name a country in the late expanding stage of the DTM
Name a country in the low stationary stage of the DTM
Name a country in the decrease stage of the DTM
When did China introduce its one child policy?
Why was the Chinese one child policy introduced?
Due to fears that that its population growth would exceed the country's natural ability to provide for its people and there would be famine and poverty
When did Poland join the EU?
What are the A8 countries?
Eight Eastern European countries that joined the EU in 2004
How many migrants did the UK predict would enter the country from A8 countries? How many actually applied?
- 15,000 predicted
- 447,000 applied initially
What are the pull factors for polish people who want to migrate into the UK? (5)
- Greater number of job opportunities than in Poland
- Larger wages than in Poland (although they would seem low wages in the UK)
- Better education for children
- Higher standard of living
- Healthcare available
What was the unemployment rate in Poland compared to the UK in 2005?
Once in the UK, what are the 3 most common jobs that polish migrants fill?
- Factory workers
- Fruit pickers
As a result of emigration, what has happen to Poland's air traffic numbers?
They have become the second fastest growing in the world after China
Approximately how much money is contributed to the UK economy by polish migrants every year
What percentage of migrant workers are aged between 18-35?
Has the price of oil in the UK gone up or down as a result of migration?
- Would be 0.5% higher without migrants
What are the negative consequences of polish migrants in the UK? (6)
- UK benefits system needs to support more people
- Local people struggle to find employment
- Polish workers have been exploited to work longer hours with lower pay
- High European work ethic shows flaws in UK work ethic/standard
- Local people feel intimidated and overrun by large numbers of migrants. Discrimination develops
- Increases UK population density
What are the positive impacts of polish migration on the UK? (4)
- Undesirable but important jobs are filled
- Majority are working age and this reduces National Insurance Contributions
- Migrants contributed 1% to UK's economic growth in 2005-6
- £2.54 billion put into economy every year
What are the negative consequences of emigration fro Poland?
- Brain drain
- Fewer economically active adults to support dependant population
- Families split up
What are the positive consequences of emigration fro Poland? (4)
- Families of migrants receive money
- Migrants may return to Poland with more skills
- Less pressure on country's resources
- May encourage development within Poland
What stage of the DTM is Poland at the moment? What is it predicted to be in 2050?
- Currently: early stages of low stationary or later part of late expanding (late stage 3-early stage 4)
- 2050: decline (stage 5)
What are the impacts of changing population structure in the UK?
- Ageing population leads to increase in taxes to pay for welfare and health services
- Number of children dealing means schools closing down and jobs lost
- Increased demand for higher education.
What are the implications of changing population structure in China?
- Males heavily outweigh females (approx. 120 million unmarried men by 2050)
- Strain on educational resources
- Struggle to house everyone
- High numbers of elderly
When and why was there an issue with population in Mauritius?
In the 1950s due to a sharp decline in death rate followed by a rise in birth rates (overpopulation)
When was the Mauritian family planning programme introduced?
What is the birth rate in Mauritius?
21 per 1000
What is the ferritin its rate in Mauritius?
What is the percentage contraception use amongst married women in Mauritius?
What did the family planning programme in Mauritius consist of? (4 things)
- Setting up clinics
- Improving the status of women
- Restricting early marriages
- Improve healthcare
What has happened to female employment levels since the introduction of the family planning programme?
It has doubled. Approximately 40% of the female population are now in employment
The successful family planning programme in Mauritius went against who's population theory?
What are the four main exports of Mauritius?
- Cane sugar
What is the unemployment rate in Mauritius?
Why are transnational corporations attracted to Mauritius?
- Cheap labour
- Mauritius is an export processing zone (and therefor pays less tax)
The successful family planning programme in Mauritius supported who's population theory?
What is Canada a case study for?
What is Mauritius a case study for?
What percentage of Canada's land is uninhabitable? Why is it uninhabitable?
- Due to forests, mountains and barren soil
What is Canada's population density?
8 per square mile
What are the negative consequences of Canada's under population?
- Canadian citizens pay higher taxes than neighbouring USA
- Difficult to improve the income and standard of living for people
- Small workforce driving the economy
When and how did the Canadian governments intervene in an attempt to create sustainable economic growth?
- In 2006
- Government implemented broad tax reductions and invested in infrastructure
- This has lead to a higher percentage of growth than any other G7 country
What is the case study for ageing populations?
Why is the fertility rate in the UK falling?
- There are more people aged 45+ (meaning they're infertile) than aged between 16-44
- Popularisation of Birth control
- Large families are unnecessary
- Raising children is expensive and burden
- Emancipation of women
- Waning religious influences
What are the economic impacts of an ageing population in the UK?
- Increased cost of coping with more people who suffer from mental and physical conditions (strain on healthcare, residential homes and social services)
- Difficult to provide every pensioner with adequate pension
- Potential for more year round tourism from pensioners who travel and at off-peak times
What are the social implications of an ageing population on the UK? (7)
- ageism against older people who want to work
- Economically active adults unhappy to pay such large taxes
- Shortage of workers which could lead to wage inflation
- Conflicts between rich and poor pensioners who live very different lives
- Increase in cases of mental and physical health which require attention of ambulances and take hospital beds
- Transport needs of people must be met
- Grey vote
What is the life expectancy for men in the UK? What is it for women?
How many people aged over 65 will there be in the UK by 2050?
Three times as many as there are today
Why are elderly social clubs so beneficial?
- They keep elderly people active therefor less likely to need government help
- Maintains mental health in elderly people
- Provides jobs
What are the UK government's options to dealing with paying the elderly pensions?
- People may need to pay higher taxes
- People may need to retire later
- Scrap pensions altogether
How many pensioners are there in the UK?
12 million and rising
in what year did the number of over 65s surpass the number of under 16s?
What percentage of the UK population is over 80 years old?
What is the estimated pension age for both men and women by 2050?
68 years (61 atm)