Intro to Microbiology 7.1

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corbin19
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Intro to Microbiology 7.1
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2010-08-12 09:59:18
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intro to micro 7.1
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  1. a growth of microorganisms on or in a nutritive medium.
    culture
  2. containing only one species of organism
    pure culture
  3. visible growth as seen on a solid medium
    colony
  4. study of the form and structure of living organisms; shape
    morphology
  5. microscopic shape
    cellular morphology
  6. macroscopic or visual form and structure on a given medium or substrate.
    colonial morphology
  7. having complicated nutritional requirements
    fastidious
  8. living in the presence of oxygen
    aerobic
  9. living in the absence of oxygen.
    anaerobic
  10. essential; able to survive in only one environment
    obligate/strict
  11. not required, optional; capable of adaptive response to varying environment.
    facultative
  12. bacteria normally residing in a specific part body area.
    normal flora/colonizers
  13. the ability to produce disease.
    pathogenicity
  14. degree of pathogenicity.
    virulence
  15. within the living body
    in-vivo
  16. within a glass; in an artificial envrionment.
    in-vitro
  17. area of biologic science comprising three distinct, but highly interrelated, disciplines that include classification, nomenclature, and identification
    taxonomy
  18. persistent survival of microorganisms
    colonization
  19. procaryotae
    kingdom
  20. procaryotes
    division
  21. procaryotaceae
    class
  22. procaryotales
    order
  23. enterobacteriaceae
    families
  24. in the bacteria Salmonella typhi what is the genus and what is the species?
    • genus: salmonella
    • species: typhi
  25. robert koch proved this while studying anthrax bacillus in germany in the late 1800's
    germ theory
  26. a specific disease is caused by a specific microorganism is the principle of what?
    Germ theory
  27. what are the four postulates of the germ theory?
    • a specific organism can always be found in association with a given disease
    • the organism can be isolated and grown in pure culture in the lab
    • the pure culture will produce the disease when inoculated into a susceptible animal
    • it is possible to recover the organism in pure culture from the experimentally infected animal
  28. this hood allows room air to pass through cabinet, sterilzing only the air exhausted.
    Class I
  29. in this hood 70% or air is re-circulated.
    class IIA
  30. in this hood air is exhausted outside the hood.
    Class IIB
  31. This hood is fully enclosed.
    Class III
  32. what does BSL stand for?
    Biological Safety Levels
  33. This is the BSL for organisms with no know potential for infecting healthy people
    BSL 1
  34. this BSL contains all common agents of infectious disease.
    BSL 2
  35. This is the BSL for organisms unlikely to be encountered in routine laboratory. Transmitted primarily by aerosol.
    BSL 3
  36. This is the BSL for viruses not commonly found in the US
    BSL 4
  37. what is another term for the cell wall?
    peptidoglycan murein layer
  38. This gives the cell shape and strength, it changes with osmotic pressure.
    cell wall
  39. this is composed of primarily peptidoglycan teichoic acid.
    Gram Positive cell wall
  40. This cell wall is thicker, more resistant to physical disruption, more susceptible to PCN and stains purple or blue.
    gram positve cell wall
  41. the outer layer of this is composed mostly of lipids, lipopolysaccharide, with a thin peptidoglycan.
    Gram negative cell wall
  42. this is a toxic endotoxin that servers as a barrier against harmful chemicals and enzymes in Gram negative cell walls.
    lipoplysaccharide
  43. These have a thinner wall that is less resistant to physical disruption, less inhibiton to basic dyes, and less susceptible to PCN. Stains red or pink.
    Gram negative cell wall
  44. this provides protection from phagocytosis, drying and gives the bacteria increased virulence.
    capsule
  45. capsules are _____ labile
    heat
  46. what are the two stains used for capsules?
    • negative stain
    • Hiss stain
  47. what are the two types of negative stain?
    • india ink
    • nigrosin
  48. what is the appearance of capsules in negative stain?
    • capsule is clear
    • background is black
  49. what is the appearance of a capsule in hiss stain?
    • capsule is light blue
    • background is deep blue
  50. what is the function of flagellum?
    locomotion or motility
  51. these are extremely fine, hairlike appendages
    flagellum
  52. falgellum are ______ and ____ labile.
    • thermo
    • acid
  53. what is the composition of flagellum?
    protein
  54. what is the staining method for Flagellum?
    Ryu
  55. what is the appearance of flagellum in the ryu staining method?
    organism and flagella are coated red
  56. what type of microscopy is used to see unstained flagella?
    electron microscopy
  57. what are three methods of demonstrating motility in bacteria?
    • wet prep
    • hanging drop technique
    • stab culture of semi-solid media
  58. what are the three types of flagellum?
    • atrichous
    • polar
    • peritrichous
  59. this means without flagellum.
    atrichous
  60. what are the three types of polar flagellum?
    • monotrichous
    • lophotrichous
    • amphitrichous
  61. this polar flagellum is a single flagellum at only one end of the cell
    monotrichous
  62. this is when two or more polar flagella are at one end of the cell wall
    lophotrichous
  63. this is when one or more flagella are at both ends of the cell wall
    amphitrichous
  64. this means without flagella
    atrichous
  65. this is when flagella surround the entire cell
    peritrichous
  66. this is the most common type of flagella among most medically important bacteria
    peritrichous
  67. these are hair like structures of gram negative cells that are 1 to 2 um long.
    pili
  68. what is another name for pili?
    fimbriae
  69. what are the two functions of pili?
    • conjugation
    • adhesion
  70. entry for genetic material during bacterial mating.
    conjugation
  71. pili cannot be stained and must be observed through what type of microscopy
    electron microscopy
  72. this is a semipermiable membrane which is the site of cellular respiration.
    cytoplasmic membrane
  73. this cellular component secretes extracellular enzymes and controls passage of nutrients and waste
    cytoplasmic membrane
  74. this cellular component is involved in invagination of cytoplasmic membrane.
    mesosome
  75. this increases the available membrane surface area for catabolic and anabolic cellualr enzymes.
    mesosome
  76. this is a densely packed structure made of RNA and protein involved in protein synthesis.
    Cytosol inclusions
  77. this is a stored form of glucose.
    glycogen
  78. Bacterial nuclear material consists of ________ chromosome(s).
    single
  79. Endospores are produced by certain ____ in response to adverse conditions.
    GPB
  80. what are endospores composed of?
    • dipicolinic acid
    • calcium
  81. what is the stain used to dye endospores?
    malachite green spore stain
  82. when using malachite green spore stain what is the appearance of the endospores?
    • spore: green
    • sporangium: red
  83. this is a substance produced by organism that speeds up rate or reaction without being altered or used up.
    enzyme
  84. what are the two types of enzymes?
    • extracellular
    • intracellular
  85. these are enzymes which enhance pathogenicity. they are excreted by the cell into surrounding environment
    Extracellular (exoenzyme)
  86. these are enzymes that are maintained within the cell which produce energy.
    intracellular (endoenzyme)
  87. these are toxins which are secreted into the environment by GP organisms.
    Exotoxins
  88. wqhat are two organisms which secrete exotoxins.
    • C. perfringens
    • C. tetani
  89. exotoxins are _____ and ______ labile.
    • heat
    • acid
  90. These exotoxins are used as a vaccine and stimulate antbody production.
    toxoid
  91. these toxins are contained within cell wall of many gram negative bacteria.
    endotoxin
  92. this type of toxin is composed of lipopolysaccharides.
    endotoxin
  93. what are two pharmocologic effects of endotoxins?
    • pyrogenic effects
    • blood changes
  94. this is essential to all bacteria and allows nutrients to enter cell, it also provides suitable environment for metabolic reations ande protects cell from sudden temperature changes.
    moisture
  95. this allows for the fastest growth rate in the shortest amount of time.
    Optimum growth temperature
  96. this is when bacteria thrive in an environment with a high CO2 content.
    capnophilic
  97. this is when bacteria thrives in an environment with small amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
    microaerophilic
  98. this is when bacteria thrive in an environment with high moisture levels
    humidophilic
  99. what are the three nutritional requirements for bacteria?
    • energy
    • electron
    • carbon
  100. what is the means by which cellular multiplication takes place in bacteria?
    transverse binary fission
  101. in this phase of the growth curve there is no growth, high nutrition and low toxic waste
    lag
  102. in this phase of the growth curve there is increasing growth rate.
    acceleration
  103. in this phase of the growth curve there is constant growth, decreasing nutrients, and increasing toxic levels.
    exponential (log)
  104. this the phase of the growth curve where toxic metabolites accumulate and growth is inhibited.
    retardation
  105. this is the phase of the growth curve where nutirents are exhausted and toxic waste is high.
    maximum stationary
  106. in this phase of the growth curve, the majority of cells die.
    decline (death)
  107. what phase of the growth curve should work with bacteria be done?
    exceptional
  108. this is a culture of bacteria derived from another culture.
    subculture
  109. physiological groups of bacteria are based on what?
    temperature requirements
  110. these cold loving bacteria grow between 0-30oC
    psychrophiles
  111. what is the optimum temperature for psychrophiles?
    20oC
  112. what is an example of a psychrophile?
    francisella tularensis
  113. most medically important pathogens fall into this pysiological group with a growth range of 20-40oC.
    mesophiles
  114. what is the optimum temperature for mesophiles?
    37oC
  115. these are heat loving bacteria with a growth range of 45-60oC
    Thermophiles
  116. what is the optimum temperature for thermophiles?
    50oC
  117. this bacteria is a thermophile with a growth range of 65-75oC
    bacillus stearothermophilus
  118. these are thermophiles which also grow in the mesophilic range.
    Facultative thermophiles
  119. this group of bacteria require oxygen in very reduced amounts (5-15%).
    microaerophilic
  120. this group of bacteria require energy from light.
    phototroph
  121. this group of bacteria require energy from chemical compounds.
    chemotroph
  122. this is a self sustaining bacteria group.
    autotroph
  123. this is not a self sustaining bacteria group
    heterotroph
  124. this group of bacteria uses chemical and organic compunds as a crabon source. includes all medically important pathogens
    chemoheterotrophs
  125. what is the name of the bacteriologist who developed the Gram Stain?
    Christian Gram
  126. procaryotes will differentially retain crystal violet depending on ____________.
    cell wall characteristics
  127. what is the primary stain used in Gram stain?
    crystal violet
  128. what is the mordant used in gram stain?
    gram's iodine
  129. what is the decolorizer used in gram stain?
    ethanol/acetone
  130. what is the ethanol/acetone ratio for decolorizer
    1:2
  131. what is the counter stain used in gram stain?
    safranin-O
  132. this stain is used to observe the presence of encapsulated budding yeast forms.
    negative stain
  133. When preparing a smear for gram stain what should the appearance be?
    homogenous, thin, not opaque
  134. how long is decolorizer solution applied to the slide for?
    3-5 seconds
  135. what objective should be used when examining a gram stain slide?
    100x
  136. what bacteria stain red or pink with gram stain?
    gram negative
  137. what bacteria stain purple or blue/black with gram stain?
    gram positive
  138. what three things are observed when performing a clinical material evaluation of bacterial cells?
    • gram reactions
    • morphologies
    • arrangements
  139. this provides a preliminary diagnosis when reporting results?
    clinical material evaluation
  140. how are PMN and epithelial cells reported?
    semi-quantitive micro
  141. when using this type of stain, the specimen is centrifuged and slide is read under 40x.
    negative stain
  142. what is considered positive when using negative stain?
    presence of microbial capsules
  143. what is used as quality control for gram positive organisms?
    staphylococcus aureus
  144. what is used as quality control for gram negative organisms?
    escherichia coli
  145. what is used as positive quality control for negative stain?
    candida albicans
  146. what is used as negative quality control for negative stain?
    normal saline
  147. colonial morphology aids in ___________.
    identification
  148. when is colonia morphology interpreted?
    after 24 hours
  149. colonial morphology is a __________ description that requires skill.
    subjective
  150. punctuate or pinpoint colonial morphology
    0.5mm
  151. minute colonial morphology
    0.5-1.0mm
  152. small, med, large colonial morphology
    1.0-5.0mm
  153. spreading colonial morphology
    5.0-10.0mm
  154. actively motile colonial morphology
    swarming
  155. what are five types of elevation in colonial morphology
    • flat
    • raised
    • convex
    • umbilicate
    • umbonate
  156. what are five forms or shapes in colonial morphology
    • punctiform
    • circular
    • filamentous
    • irregular
  157. this descirbes a butter-like texture or consistency in colonial morphology
    butyraceous
  158. this describes a sticky or glistening texture or consistency in colonial morphology
    mucoid
  159. in colonial morphology ____ is usually non-definitive and extremely subjective.
    odor
  160. when performing bacterial classification what objective do you scan?
    10x
  161. when performing bacterial classification what objective do you scrutinize at?
    100x
  162. what is the average diameter of cocci?
    1um
  163. these are round or spherical shaped bacteria
    cocci
  164. this is bacteria in pairs
    diplococci
  165. this is bacteria in a tetrad or cluster of four
    tetracocci
  166. this is bacteria is a cuboidal or packet of eight
    sarcinae
  167. this is cocci in chains
    streptococci
  168. this is cocci in clusters
    staphylococci
  169. these are rod shaped bacteria
    bacilli
  170. these are chains of rods
    streptobacilli
  171. these are pairs of rods
    diplobacilli
  172. these are rods which are parallel and acute angles to each other
    palisades
  173. these are rods that are parallel to each other
    school of fish
  174. these are oval bacterial cells that are intermediate between the coccus and bacillus forms.
    coccobacilli
  175. this is the occurence of two or more structural forms during a life cycle.
    pleomorphism
  176. these are spiral or helical shaped bacterium
    spirilli
  177. the process whereby all forms of microbial life, including bacterial spores, are killed.
    sterilization
  178. what are the two means by which sterilization takes place
    • physical
    • chemical
  179. this is the complete elimination of microbial viability.
    sterilization
  180. this is the temporary state of asepsis or free from microorganisms.
    sterility
  181. the irreversible loss of the ability to reproduce.
    death
  182. what is the method of sterilization for infectious waste
    incineration
  183. what is the most common method of sterilization in microbiology.
    moist heat (steam under pressure)
  184. what is the method used to sterilize things using moist heat.
    121oC for 15 min at 15PSI
  185. this method of sterilization is used for heat sensitive items using ionizing (gamma) radiation.
    filtration
  186. this is the shortest period of time to kill by heat.
    thermal death time
  187. this denatures proteins and destroys enzymes
    heat
  188. this is the most common type of chemical sterilization
    ethylene oxide (EtO
  189. what are the three types of chemical sterilization
    • ethylene oxide
    • gluteraldehyde
    • peracetic acid
  190. this chemical sterilization method is used for sporicidal
    gluteraldehyde
  191. this method of sterilization exerts simply an inhibitory effect on bacterial growth
    cold
  192. this is the process whereby pathogenic organisms but not necessarily all microorganisms or spores are destroyed.
    disinfection
  193. what are the three methods of disinfection
    • boiling
    • pasteurizing
    • nonionizing radiation
  194. how do you boil for disinfection
    100oC for 15 min
  195. how do you pasteurize for disinfection
    • 63oC for 30 min
    • 72oC for 15 sec
  196. how often do you record temps for sterilization equipment?
    daily
  197. how often are sterility checks performed on sterilization equipment
    weekly
  198. there are autoclave ampules that are impregnated with bacillus stearothermophilus
    Kilit Ampules "A" test
  199. what are the positive and negative results for Killit ampules
    • positive: yellow
    • negative: no color change or purple
  200. these are autoclave strips placed in thio broth impregnated with bacillus stearothermophilus.
    spore strips
  201. what are the positive and negative results for spore strips
    • positive: turbidity or growth
    • negative: absence of turbidity or growth
  202. this is used for flame sterilization
    bunsen burner
  203. what temperature does the incinerator operate at?
    1500oF (815oC)
  204. what is the rule for using an electric incinerator
    5 second rule
  205. what material is the metal inoculating loop made out of?
    3 inches of tungsten alloy or nichrome V
  206. what is the purpose of an inoculating loop?
    streaking
  207. what is the purpose of an inoculating needle
    to inoculate tubed media
  208. what is the purpose of a calibrated loop?
    colony count
  209. what two materials are calibrated loops made out of?
    • platinum
    • plastic
  210. what quantity of fluid does a calibrated loop deliver?
    .001ml
  211. what is are the proportions of a petri dish?
    • 15x100mm
    • 15x150mm
  212. this is a polycarbonate jar with a O-ring gasket lid that clamps with a screw.
    Gaspak jar
  213. Calibrated loops should be calibrated ti within ___.
    10%
  214. culturette swabs are aslo known as what?
    • stuart swab
    • amie's swab
  215. what is the media used for a pharynx collection?
    culturette swab
  216. which specimen do you gram stain first?
    sputum
  217. which specimen should be collected then transported to the lab within two hours?
    urine
  218. how far past the sphincter is a stool swab collected?
    2.5 cm
  219. how far into the urethra should a genital collection penetrate?
    2-4 cm
  220. what are the quantities of O2 and CO2 in a candle jar?
    • 12-17% O2
    • 3-7% CO2
  221. how much CO2 is used in an anaerobic system?
    5-10% CO2
  222. how much CO2 is used in the CO2 system?
    5-10% CO2
  223. how much CO2 and O2 is used in the microaerophilic system?
    • 5-12% CO2
    • 5-15% O2
  224. when performing a semi-quant count, how is quandrant isolation performed on a petri dish?
    • extent of growth Enumeration
    • primary quadrant 1+
    • second quadrant 2+
    • thrid quadrant 3+
    • fourth quadrant 4+

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