Intro to Microbiology 7.1
Card Set Information
Intro to Microbiology 7.1
intro microbiology micro MLT
intro to micro 7.1
a growth of microorganisms on or in a nutritive medium.
containing only one species of organism
visible growth as seen on a solid medium
study of the form and structure of living organisms; shape
macroscopic or visual form and structure on a given medium or substrate.
having complicated nutritional requirements
living in the presence of oxygen
living in the absence of oxygen.
essential; able to survive in only one environment
not required, optional; capable of adaptive response to varying environment.
bacteria normally residing in a specific part body area.
the ability to produce disease.
degree of pathogenicity.
within the living body
within a glass; in an artificial envrionment.
area of biologic science comprising three distinct, but highly interrelated, disciplines that include classification, nomenclature, and identification
persistent survival of microorganisms
in the bacteria
what is the genus and what is the species?
robert koch proved this while studying anthrax bacillus in germany in the late 1800's
a specific disease is caused by a specific microorganism is the principle of what?
what are the four postulates of the germ theory?
a specific organism can always be found in association with a given disease
the organism can be isolated and grown in pure culture in the lab
the pure culture will produce the disease when inoculated into a susceptible animal
it is possible to recover the organism in pure culture from the experimentally infected animal
this hood allows room air to pass through cabinet, sterilzing only the air exhausted.
in this hood 70% or air is re-circulated.
in this hood air is exhausted outside the hood.
This hood is fully enclosed.
what does BSL stand for?
Biological Safety Levels
This is the BSL for organisms with no know potential for infecting healthy people
this BSL contains all common agents of infectious disease.
This is the BSL for organisms unlikely to be encountered in routine laboratory. Transmitted primarily by aerosol.
This is the BSL for viruses not commonly found in the US
what is another term for the cell wall?
peptidoglycan murein layer
This gives the cell shape and strength, it changes with osmotic pressure.
this is composed of primarily peptidoglycan teichoic acid.
Gram Positive cell wall
This cell wall is thicker, more resistant to physical disruption, more susceptible to PCN and stains purple or blue.
gram positve cell wall
the outer layer of this is composed mostly of lipids, lipopolysaccharide, with a thin peptidoglycan.
Gram negative cell wall
this is a toxic endotoxin that servers as a barrier against harmful chemicals and enzymes in Gram negative cell walls.
These have a thinner wall that is less resistant to physical disruption, less inhibiton to basic dyes, and less susceptible to PCN. Stains red or pink.
Gram negative cell wall
this provides protection from phagocytosis, drying and gives the bacteria increased virulence.
capsules are _____ labile
what are the two stains used for capsules?
what are the two types of negative stain?
what is the appearance of capsules in negative stain?
capsule is clear
background is black
what is the appearance of a capsule in hiss stain?
capsule is light blue
background is deep blue
what is the function of flagellum?
locomotion or motility
these are extremely fine, hairlike appendages
falgellum are ______ and ____ labile.
what is the composition of flagellum?
what is the staining method for Flagellum?
what is the appearance of flagellum in the ryu staining method?
organism and flagella are coated red
what type of microscopy is used to see unstained flagella?
what are three methods of demonstrating motility in bacteria?
hanging drop technique
stab culture of semi-solid media
what are the three types of flagellum?
this means without flagellum.
what are the three types of polar flagellum?
this polar flagellum is a single flagellum at only one end of the cell
this is when two or more polar flagella are at one end of the cell wall
this is when one or more flagella are at both ends of the cell wall
this means without flagella
this is when flagella surround the entire cell
this is the most common type of flagella among most medically important bacteria
these are hair like structures of gram negative cells that are 1 to 2 um long.
what is another name for pili?
what are the two functions of pili?
entry for genetic material during bacterial mating.
pili cannot be stained and must be observed through what type of microscopy
this is a semipermiable membrane which is the site of cellular respiration.
this cellular component secretes extracellular enzymes and controls passage of nutrients and waste
this cellular component is involved in invagination of cytoplasmic membrane.
this increases the available membrane surface area for catabolic and anabolic cellualr enzymes.
this is a densely packed structure made of RNA and protein involved in protein synthesis.
this is a stored form of glucose.
Bacterial nuclear material consists of ________ chromosome(s).
Endospores are produced by certain ____ in response to adverse conditions.
what are endospores composed of?
what is the stain used to dye endospores?
malachite green spore stain
when using malachite green spore stain what is the appearance of the endospores?
this is a substance produced by organism that speeds up rate or reaction without being altered or used up.
what are the two types of enzymes?
these are enzymes which enhance pathogenicity. they are excreted by the cell into surrounding environment
these are enzymes that are maintained within the cell which produce energy.
these are toxins which are secreted into the environment by GP organisms.
wqhat are two organisms which secrete exotoxins.
exotoxins are _____ and ______ labile.
These exotoxins are used as a vaccine and stimulate antbody production.
these toxins are contained within cell wall of many gram negative bacteria.
this type of toxin is composed of lipopolysaccharides.
what are two pharmocologic effects of endotoxins?
this is essential to all bacteria and allows nutrients to enter cell, it also provides suitable environment for metabolic reations ande protects cell from sudden temperature changes.
this allows for the fastest growth rate in the shortest amount of time.
Optimum growth temperature
this is when bacteria thrive in an environment with a high CO
this is when bacteria thrives in an environment with small amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
this is when bacteria thrive in an environment with high moisture levels
what are the three nutritional requirements for bacteria?
what is the means by which cellular multiplication takes place in bacteria?
transverse binary fission
in this phase of the growth curve there is no growth, high nutrition and low toxic waste
in this phase of the growth curve there is increasing growth rate.
in this phase of the growth curve there is constant growth, decreasing nutrients, and increasing toxic levels.
this the phase of the growth curve where toxic metabolites accumulate and growth is inhibited.
this is the phase of the growth curve where nutirents are exhausted and toxic waste is high.
in this phase of the growth curve, the majority of cells die.
what phase of the growth curve should work with bacteria be done?
this is a culture of bacteria derived from another culture.
physiological groups of bacteria are based on what?
these cold loving bacteria grow between 0-30
what is the optimum temperature for psychrophiles?
what is an example of a psychrophile?
most medically important pathogens fall into this pysiological group with a growth range of 20-40
what is the optimum temperature for mesophiles?
these are heat loving bacteria with a growth range of 45-60
what is the optimum temperature for thermophiles?
this bacteria is a thermophile with a growth range of 65-75
these are thermophiles which also grow in the mesophilic range.
this group of bacteria require oxygen in very reduced amounts (5-15%).
this group of bacteria require energy from light.
this group of bacteria require energy from chemical compounds.
this is a self sustaining bacteria group.
this is not a self sustaining bacteria group
this group of bacteria uses chemical and organic compunds as a crabon source. includes all medically important pathogens
what is the name of the bacteriologist who developed the Gram Stain?
procaryotes will differentially retain crystal violet depending on ____________.
cell wall characteristics
what is the primary stain used in Gram stain?
what is the mordant used in gram stain?
what is the decolorizer used in gram stain?
what is the ethanol/acetone ratio for decolorizer
what is the counter stain used in gram stain?
this stain is used to observe the presence of encapsulated budding yeast forms.
When preparing a smear for gram stain what should the appearance be?
homogenous, thin, not opaque
how long is decolorizer solution applied to the slide for?
what objective should be used when examining a gram stain slide?
what bacteria stain red or pink with gram stain?
what bacteria stain purple or blue/black with gram stain?
what three things are observed when performing a clinical material evaluation of bacterial cells?
this provides a preliminary diagnosis when reporting results?
clinical material evaluation
how are PMN and epithelial cells reported?
when using this type of stain, the specimen is centrifuged and slide is read under 40x.
what is considered positive when using negative stain?
presence of microbial capsules
what is used as quality control for gram positive organisms?
what is used as quality control for gram negative organisms?
what is used as positive quality control for negative stain?
what is used as negative quality control for negative stain?
colonial morphology aids in ___________.
when is colonia morphology interpreted?
after 24 hours
colonial morphology is a __________ description that requires skill.
punctuate or pinpoint colonial morphology
minute colonial morphology
small, med, large colonial morphology
spreading colonial morphology
actively motile colonial morphology
what are five types of elevation in colonial morphology
what are five forms or shapes in colonial morphology
this descirbes a butter-like texture or consistency in colonial morphology
this describes a sticky or glistening texture or consistency in colonial morphology
in colonial morphology ____ is usually non-definitive and extremely subjective.
when performing bacterial classification what objective do you scan?
when performing bacterial classification what objective do you scrutinize at?
what is the average diameter of cocci?
these are round or spherical shaped bacteria
this is bacteria in pairs
this is bacteria in a tetrad or cluster of four
this is bacteria is a cuboidal or packet of eight
this is cocci in chains
this is cocci in clusters
these are rod shaped bacteria
these are chains of rods
these are pairs of rods
these are rods which are parallel and acute angles to each other
these are rods that are parallel to each other
school of fish
these are oval bacterial cells that are intermediate between the coccus and bacillus forms.
this is the occurence of two or more structural forms during a life cycle.
these are spiral or helical shaped bacterium
the process whereby all forms of microbial life, including bacterial spores, are killed.
what are the two means by which sterilization takes place
this is the complete elimination of microbial viability.
this is the temporary state of asepsis or free from microorganisms.
the irreversible loss of the ability to reproduce.
what is the method of sterilization for infectious waste
what is the most common method of sterilization in microbiology.
moist heat (steam under pressure)
what is the method used to sterilize things using moist heat.
C for 15 min at 15PSI
this method of sterilization is used for heat sensitive items using ionizing (gamma) radiation.
this is the shortest period of time to kill by heat.
thermal death time
this denatures proteins and destroys enzymes
this is the most common type of chemical sterilization
ethylene oxide (EtO
what are the three types of chemical sterilization
this chemical sterilization method is used for sporicidal
this method of sterilization exerts simply an inhibitory effect on bacterial growth
this is the process whereby pathogenic organisms but not necessarily all microorganisms or spores are destroyed.
what are the three methods of disinfection
how do you boil for disinfection
C for 15 min
how do you pasteurize for disinfection
C for 30 min
C for 15 sec
how often do you record temps for sterilization equipment?
how often are sterility checks performed on sterilization equipment
there are autoclave ampules that are impregnated with bacillus stearothermophilus
Kilit Ampules "A" test
what are the positive and negative results for Killit ampules
: no color change or purple
these are autoclave strips placed in thio broth impregnated with bacillus stearothermophilus.
what are the positive and negative results for spore strips
: turbidity or growth
: absence of turbidity or growth
this is used for flame sterilization
what temperature does the incinerator operate at?
what is the rule for using an electric incinerator
5 second rule
what material is the metal inoculating loop made out of?
3 inches of tungsten alloy or nichrome V
what is the purpose of an inoculating loop?
what is the purpose of an inoculating needle
to inoculate tubed media
what is the purpose of a calibrated loop?
what two materials are calibrated loops made out of?
what quantity of fluid does a calibrated loop deliver?
what is are the proportions of a petri dish?
this is a polycarbonate jar with a O-ring gasket lid that clamps with a screw.
Calibrated loops should be calibrated ti within ___.
culturette swabs are aslo known as what?
what is the media used for a pharynx collection?
which specimen do you gram stain first?
which specimen should be collected then transported to the lab within two hours?
how far past the sphincter is a stool swab collected?
how far into the urethra should a genital collection penetrate?
what are the quantities of O
in a candle jar?
how much CO
is used in an anaerobic system?
how much CO
is used in the CO
how much CO
is used in the microaerophilic system?
when performing a semi-quant count, how is quandrant isolation performed on a petri dish?
extent of growth
primary quadrant 1+
second quadrant 2+
thrid quadrant 3+
fourth quadrant 4+