BIO-1120: Chapter 10

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BIO-1120: Chapter 10
2014-12-24 13:03:12
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  1. Acetyl CoA
    Acetyl Coenzyme A; the entry compound for the citric acid cycle in cellular respiration, formed from a two-carbon fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme
  2. Aerobic Respiration
    a catabolic pathway for organic molecules, using oxygen (O2) as the final electron acceptor in an electron transport chain and ultimately producing ATP: this is the most efficient catabolic pathway and is carried out in most eukaryotic cells and many prokaryotic organisms
  3. Alcohol Fermentation
    glycolysis followed by the reduction of pyruvate to ethyl alcohol, regenerating NAD+ and releasing carbon dioxide
  4. ATP Synthase
    a complex of several membrane proteins that functions in chemiosmosis with adjacent electron transport chains, using the energy of a hydrogen ion (proton) concentration gradient to make ATP; ATP synthases are found in inner mitochondrial membranes of eukaryotic cells and in the plasma membranes of prokaryotes
  5. Beta Oxidation
    a metabolic sequence that breaks fatty acids down to two-carbon fragments that enter the citric acid cycle as acetyl COA
  6. Cellular Respiration
    the catabolic pathways of aerobic and anaerobic respiration, which break down organic molecules and use an electron transport chain for the production of ATP
  7. Chemiosis
    an energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work, such as the synthesis of ATP; under aerobic conditions, most ATP synthesis in cells occurs by chemiosmosis
  8. Citric Acid Cycle
    a chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules begun in glycolysis by oxidizing acetyl CoA (derived from pyruvate) to carbon dioxide; occurs within mitochondrion in eurkaryotic cells and in the cytosol of prokaryotes; together with pyruvate oxidation, the second major stage in cellular respiration
  9. Cytochrome
    an iron-containing protein that is a component of electron transport chains in the mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells and the plasma membranes of prokaryotic cells
  10. Electron Transport Chain
    a sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons down a series of redox reactions that release energy used to make TTP
  11. Facultative Anaerobe
    an organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that switches to anaerobic respiration or fermentation if oxygen is not present
  12. Fermentation
    a catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose (or other organic molecules) without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid
  13. Glycolysis
    a series of reactions that ultimately splits glucose into pyruvate; glycolysis occurs in almost all living cells, serving as the starting point for fermentation or cellular respiration
  14. Lactic Acid Fermentation
    glycolysis followed by the reduction of pyruvate to lactate, regenerating NAD+ with no release of carbon dioxide
  15. NAD+
    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a coenzyme that cycles easily between oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH) states, thus acting as an electron carrier
  16. Obligate Anaerobe
    an organism that requires oxygen for cellular respiration and cannot live without it
  17. Oxidizing Agent
    the electron acceptor in a redox reaction
  18. Oxidizing Phosphorylation
    the production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain; the third major stage of cellular respiration
  19. Proton-Motive Force
    the potential energy stored in the form of a proton electro-chemical gradient, generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions (H+) across a biological membrane during chemiosmosis
  20. Reducing Agent
    the electron donor in a redox reaction
  21. Substrate-Level Phosphorlyation
    the enzyme-catalyzed formation of ATP by direct transfer of a phosphate group tot ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism