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2014-12-24 13:22:37
Applied linguistics

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  1. Definition of applied linguistics
    • applied linguistics is a branch of linguistics can be either
    • theoretical or general of applied.

    • Theoretical linguistics attempt to specify what a language is (the
    • nature of human language)
  2. what applied linguistics try negotiate
    the nature of human language)

    The nature of language acquisition

    What are principles of language used

    • How do linguistics study a language (observe, devise a theory of
    • language use)

    • Seek an explanation the phenomenon which is a language in this case (a
    • set of hypothesis) a theory is also an abstraction(an abstract characterization
    • of the unite, rules, relations, properties that make up a language.

    • Introspection (studying a language out of the field) 1 A method to study
    • a language.

    2 participant observation.( studying language in the field.

    Anthropology ethnography

    -using the different methods to study

    -language made use of sounds

    • -phonologies come up with a theory of phoneme (its abstract
    • characteristic)

    -distinguish constrict language

    -Minimal Pair (s)

    -these concepts are used to study a language

    - phoneme inventory

    • - syllables
    • – syllabic structure phonotactics  -
    • allophone

    -consonant cluster

    • -suprasegmental 
    • (stress/intonation)

    -intonation is common in all languages

    -morpheme (abstract characterization of a unit)

    -Root, suffixes, free/bound, syntax

    Word derivation

    Discourse Analysis combined sentences into texts

    -constituency   - predication

    Transfer/ interference

    influence of native language to second language


    -contrastive rhetoric

    • - Semantics    -denotation > a
    • property of words or language

    Connotation (semantic property of words)

    -words have sense relation. Ex synonym and antonym

    Ex when we mention a dog we instantly think

    -nature of language acquisition

    • -innateness hypothesis (human have language faculty or genetic
    • endowment)

    • We born with predisposition (capability) of acquiring language but we
    • need sufficient exposure

    *wild children/feral children

    • -critical period  -> Eric
    • Lenmeberg

    -Innateness hypothesis (human have language faculty genetic endowment

    • -we born with predisposition of acquiring language. And yet it’s not
    • adequate for language acquisition. Still we need sufficient exposure of a
    • language.

    2 when we mention cat we think of mouse etc.

    • -the definitive book of body language  
    • - Hypnotic language

    -Psychology of persuasion by Robert Bi Caldn

    -The emotional intelligence by coaching by   Stephon Neale.

    - The 45 laws of power by Robert Green.
  3. what applied linguistics is concerned with?
    • Applied linguistics is concerned with the systematic study of language
    • structure, the acquisition of first and subsequent languages, the role of
    • language in communication, and the status language as the product of particular
    • cultures and other social groups.
  4. what is Transaction and interaction function?
    • Transaction function is the most dominant component which language
    • expression of content communication of a 
    • certain content information

    - the intentional function of factual proposition information

    • 2 interactional function the use of language to establish maintain
    • social interaction in general. (relationship)

    -greeting falls into the function language.

    -using a term of address build RAPPORT

    -fatigue communication.

    • People engage in Empty talking to establish a relationship and build a
  5. what is aesthetic function?
    • -the aesthetic function is the capacity to be artistically creative to
    • use language or an art which we find in advertising.
  6. what is cognitive function ?
    --cognitive function use of language to influence the attitude of the audience or persuade them and to command it s the language of control which we find mainly in political speech
  7. the study of problems from other areas of experience.; classical

    SPEECH AND language pathology and therapy

    3th branch
    of applied language Translation and interpreting

    4 th lexicography

    5Th Forensic linguistics

    6TH  educational

    natural language processing to the problems of representing language in
    computer systems

    language planning and policy
    • -in applied linguistics defining methods and theoretical linguistics as
    • applied to the study of problems from other areas of experience.

    • 1 classical field and the most developed field is teaching and learning
    • languages (foreign)

    2 branch SPEECH AND language pathology and therapy

    • Deals with language impairment ex in children and also / adult’s
    • acquisition of language as results of brain damage. Like APHASIA

    • -a patient can use the syntax of language etc, but not all language
    • function.

    • 3th branch of applied language Translation and interpreting application
    • of linguistics from L1 to L2 target ; this provide simultaneous or consecutive
    • translation of spoken speech.

    4 th lexicography

    • the application of linguistics to the finding the way to write
    • dictionary

    5Th Forensic linguistics

    • The application of linguistics to issues of crime and law it may involve
    • the analysis of speech samples assigning a voice to a person such as police
    • reports.  The analysis of generally of
    • transact language

    • 6TH  educational
    • linguistics

    • The application of linguistics to education teaching language skills (4
    • skills) and proposes what might be taught at school (about language) like
    • suggest curricula, helps with public examination provide guides and proposals
    • to teachers.

    • 7TH natural language processing to the problems of
    • representing language in computer systems and of human computer interaction;
    • arrange of problems are tackled in this field of applied including developing
    • style usage and sophisticated grammar *machine translations

    • 8Th language planning and policy to the decision making about
    • language state and  use at a notional or
    • regional level.
  8. what is the difference between Second and foreign language?
    Second Vs foreign

    • Second language is language which is not a person’s mother tongue but which
    • is learned when the first language style system is already in place (mind) it
    • has been internalize by the speaker (phonology of language morphology etc)

    • -some researchers make distinction between second language and foreign
    • language

    • A second language has societal functions in the community which a
    • foreign language lacks ex it’s used as a medium of government, media, law,
    • administration.

    • -         
    • Foreign language is learnt from contact of outside it fulfils no
    • societal functions it lacks the state of second language ex English in
    • morocco.
  9. what's the difference between Acquisition and learning?
    Acquisition Vs learning

    • Acquisition refers to the process or result of
    • acquiring a particular of a language or a whole aspects of a language. Usually
    • acquisition refers to first language acquisition.

    • Acquisition refers to learning a Second language or a
    • foreign language too.

    • In this context acquisition is usually distinguish
    • between learning.

    • Acquisition is a natural process it’s consider as the
    • driving force behind acquiring a language.


    Learning is an instructional process.

    • It takes place in a teaching context which is consider
    • as guiding the performance of a speaker and it consider as artificial process
    • because it’s limited to formal language learning.
  10. What’s the goal of second language learning?
    • The goal was the mastery of grammar and vocabulary.
    • But with the development of linguistics we have much wider selection of the
    • goal of learning.

    • The goal new recognize is usually as including varies
    • aspects of communicative competence.

    • The first aspect; linguistics competence which
    • includes the knowledge of (phonology,syntax, morphology etc ) of a second
    • language
  11. what is a pragmatic competence ?
    Pragmatic competence

    • It enables second language speakers to use their
    • linguistics resources (L.C) in order to convey and interpret in real situation.

    Think of languages as a formal of action. Speech acts.
  12. what is discourse competence?
    Discourse competence

    • Naturally acquiring  conversation.
    • We need to beware of how terms taking operate within a conversation . – turn
    • holders.

    • Discourse
    • markers (well, you, know etc)
  13. what is sociolinguistics competence?
    • -         
    • Sociolinguistics competence

    • Consists primarily of knowledge of how to use language
    • appropriately in social situations.

    • Suitable degrees of formal and informal professional
    • setting such as language of banking, law, etc.
  14. what is sociocultural competence?
    • Sociocultural 
    • competence which include awareness of the background knowledge and
    • assumption which may lead to misunderstanding
  15. extra
    Processes of second language learning

    • Researchers are interest in the Errors more than the
    • acceptable forms

    • When a learn produces language which  can forms to native speaker norms it’s obvious
    • that learning has taken place but it is not possible to know what kind of
    • learning it was.
  16. what is Errors analysis?
    Errors analysis 

    • E.A is a technique of identifying, classifying and
    • systematically interpreting the unacceptable forms produced by second language
    • learners, which can happen at any level.

    • Errors are assumed to reflect in a systematic way, the
    • level of competence achieved by a learner.
  17. what is Error and what is a mistake ?
    • Errors
    • Vs mistakes

    • Es Are contrasted with mistakes, which are performance
    • limitation, that a learner would be able to correct.

    A mistake is performance of  ERROR.

    Deficiency of linguistics competence.

    • Mistakes can be noticed by the learner himself, but
    • ERRORS cannot be noticed, and they concern the level of competence. The
    • learners’ limitation of competence makes them unable to even notice a mistake
    • and correct it eventually.
  18. what's the two kind of knowledge people share?
    • One of the principals of all learning is that we make
    • sense of new information and ideas by relating them to our previous knowledge.

    • There are two main kind of previous knowledge, which
    • second language learners can use in order to make sense of the new language
    • they encountered;

    • first, their knowledge of their mother tongue. This is
    • to say that mother tongue influences second language learning.

    •  Second,
    • knowledge they already possess about second language itself.


    • In the first case: it’s common to talk about transfer
    • and in the second case about generalization.
  19. what is generalization and what is transfer ?
    • Generalization refers to the influence of second
    • language on further languages learning.

    • Transfer is a basic language learning process. Where
    • an element from learner’s first language is used in their developing second
    • language.
    • (So whenever a learner learning a second language uses
    • a feature from their mother tongue into second language we speak of transfer.
    • This element could be morphological, grammatical, or lexical etc…)  (but once you develop your second language you
    • can start getting rid of those transfer features) (but sometimes those features
    • cannot be eradicated from the system we keep lingering and here we speak
    • of  fossilized/fossilization errors)

    • (is transfer always negative ? transfer maybe positive
    • when second language shares a wide range of features or element or structures
    • with mother tongue) (so transfer becomes a powerful process that can take the
    • learner deep into the new system of second language)
    • Transfer can be negative, when the use of a native
    • form or structure produces an ERROR in second language

    *verb drop phenomenon

    • Negative transfer is also called interference; is the
    • negative influence from the speaker’s first language to the second language.
  20. what is contrastive analysis ? what contrastive analysis approach aims ?
    • Learners use in appropriately language items or
    • structures from their first language in speaking or writing the second such
    • instances of potential interference maybe identified by contrastive  analysis

    •  Contrastive
    • analysis is the identification of point of structural similarities and
    • difference between two languages the assumption is that point of difference
    • will be areas of potential difficulty in the learning of one or other of the
    • languages. Errors are caused by point of difference between the two languages.

    • Contrastive analysis approach aims to predict what
    • these difficulties will be and to provide teaching materials which will
    • help.  (we call these difficulties
    • interference)
  21. extra summary generalization + transfer + contrastive analysis
    • Previously any kind of learning is influenced by previous learning, and
    • moderate by previous learning and previous learning takes two forms. Influences
    • from mother tongue (the first language) that system influences the learning of
    • second language and this influence refer to (transfer) the knowledge of first
    • language transferred to the learning of a second language and this transfer can
    • lead to a good result and enhance L2 learning and that case we speak of
    • positive transfer and sometimes we can say that knowledge of L1 doesn’t help
    • and maybe it hampers it. It’s a hamper factor or an impediment to second
    • language learning and in that case it refers to as negative transfer. Negative
    • transfer it might refer as what is called an interference. Interference means
    • the same thing as negative transfer. When a feature of the first language. And
    • one approach which help to determine interference is contrastive Analysis (is a theory which helps us to identify
    • point of similarity and point of difference between language systems) and the
    • assumption is that points of difference are likely to lead to interference from
    • L1 into L2)

    • Another type of process in which previous knowledge plays an important
    • role which is the process of generalization (is another basic learning process
    • and it is fundamental to learning in general.) generalization is the process
    • whereby learners extend their initial use of a linguistic feature to a class of
    • items. Generalization operates all the time and is almost always helpful to
    • learning (in some cases it helps but it needs to be corrected example past
    • tense formation in English L2 learners of English do not need to learn
    • separately for each verb how it can be used to express time in the past once
    • they know the underline pattern of rule that create ex walked from walk they
    • apply it to all verbs  (through exposure
    • they know how to add the morpheme “ed” to the verb walk and once they know this
    • rule they extend it to all verbs they encounter and therefore we can say
    • generalization as a process helps them to learn more better a language. (they
    • don’t need to know how each verb forms the past tense)

    • The Noun (once the second language learners the underlying rule or
    • underlying patter that forms a plural noun from a singular noun by adding the
    • “S” morpheme (inflectional ‘S’ morpheme) once they know this rule they extend
    • it to the class of nouns.

    • Syntaxlly speaking we can give the example of   passive voice once they know the underlying
    • rule of forming the passive they apply it the any other sentence.

    • Without generalization the second language learner cannot the language
    • in a creative manner.

    • Generalization allows learners to use a language in a creative way.   That is to say being able to produce new
    • language themselves and being able to understand new language themselves. if
    • you aren’t able to do this you haven’t learnt the language yet. So the language
    • allows them to use a language in a creative way.

    • They can express new meaning and produce new utterances and understand
    • new meaning themselves it’s a creative use of language.

    • Again it becomes obvious with the incorrect form of language. We know
    • that generalization operating and it takes place thanks to the errors produced
    • by language learners

    • The process of generalization become apparent when it leads not to
    • correct forms but to incorrect forms that is to say it becomes
    • overgeneralization that is to say overgeneralization takes place when a certain
    • feature is extended beyond its limits for example in past tense formation a L2
    • learner may extend their underlying rule to produce incorrect forms. (ex dance
    • –danced / face- faced then he produced think thinked)

    • So past tense formation us overgeneralized. O.G can be produced by
    • learners of any mother tongue since they are based on the learner’s previous
    • experience with the second language itself rather than with their mother
    • tongue.
  22. what is Simplification ? explain, examples.

    • Simplification is another process it’s often take place especially in
    • the early stages of second language learning. A speaker omits elements that are
    • redundant and produce something similar to what is called telegraphic speech.

    • This telegraphic speech is also found in mother tongue acquisition
    • produced by children so children while they are learning their mother tongues
    • they produce this kind of telegraphic speech

    • It is an elliptical style of speech (which is characterized by ellipsis
    • by omission it is elliptical) in which grammatical words and  inflectional endings tend to be omitted it’s
    • a kind of simplified speech. For ex: the man kicks the ball -> the man kick
    • the ball. Ex birdfly -> bird is flying

    • Sometimes both simplification and transfer are combined we don’t really
    • know it is simplification or it is transfer as in this case

    *in Arabic we can have structures without a copula linking (nominal sentences)

    • Simplified utterances enable a speaker to convey essential meanings with
    • a minimum of linguistics competence

    • These simplified utterances enable the second language learner to engage
    • in interaction at an early stage and thus the exposed to a wide range of
    • language.
  23. what is Imitation ? explain
    • Imitation is recognized as a significant process where learning takes
    • place through the copying repetition and memorization of linguistics forms or
    • patterns (imitation means that a learner may come across a form which could be
    • an expression and he would copy it to his memory then he would repeat it and
    • memorize it to become part of his stored knowledge as a set phrase, as a set of
    • expression.) 

    •  Ex The second language learner
    • might produce a copy or an utterance such as Ex: I don’t know how to do it

    • Imitation is an important feature of second language learning and use it
    • gives speakers the linguistics tools for copying with situation that maybe
    • beyond their competence.

    • Imitation also provides learners with a memorized store of language
    • chunks or language samples.
  24. Theories of second language learning
    • Theories of second language
    • learning.

    These theories fall broadly into two categories.

    • 1 Those which take as their starting point of the cognitive processes.
    • That underlay. Second language learning

    2 Those that start from context of learning.

    Copying oriented theories:

    • 1 The creative construction hypothesis 
    • or interlanguage theory; assumes the existence of a language acquisition
    • device “L.A.D” which facilits  to a
    • process of creative construction in the mind of the learner, according to these
    • hypothesis second language as well as first language learners are in endowed (gifted)
    • with innate mechanisms for processing language and creating their own internal
    • grammar

    • The grammar that second language learner contract is often called
    • interlanguage it’s a language located somewhere on continuum between mother
    • tongue and that target language it’s also called transitional competence which
    • is in a state of transition as it develops in the direction of the target
    • language

    • Interlanguage does not become identical with the target language since
    • some none target features become fossilized in the learner’s grammar.

    Ex second à Segand *
  25. The input Hypothesis : 
    what is the nature of acquisition and learning?
    The input hypothesis

    • Also called the monitor models (by Stephen Krashen) in this model the
    • most important distinction between acquisition and learning.

    • Acquisition is subconscious and guided by the learner’s innate
    • mechanisms it occurs as a result of exposure to comprehensival input it is  not accessible to conscious control as
    • interaction and it occurs based when the affective filter is low (when the
    • level of anxiety is low)

    • Learning is conscious and often occurs through instruction or error
    • correction.

    • Acquired language is most important and formed the basis for spontaneous
    • communication (the creative of use of language)

    • Language that has been learnt plays only subsidiary (secondary) role as
    • monitor of speech or writing and can never pass through into the acquired
    • system.
  26. The cognitive skill learning model

    • The cognition oriented approached described so far regard language
    • learning whether second of first as a unique form of learning which requires
    • explanations specific to it.

    • Many researchers don’t accept the view, they argue that general
    • principle of cognitive psychology are sufficient to account also for second
    • language learning. Communication theory through language is regarded a complex
    • in which overt learn performance is based on a hierarchy of cognitive plans.

    Ex you would like to make request, first you think about your overall  strategy

    • At the highest level of the hierarchy the speaker need to select a
    • strategy

          Overall strategy

    • Overall strategy

    •                                             Do
    • the FTA                                                         
    • Not to do the FTA

    •                      On
    • record                                          off record

    • Without reddressive       with
    • reddressive

         Action/ baldly                 action

    • (negative face)   (positive face)



    • Formatting the request involves selecting a grammatical plan individual
    • components (such as verb phrase etc) these have to be filled with specific
    • lexical items which involve particularly plans which are in term realized by
    • action articulation.

    Ex 1 Hey! Land me a car

    •   2 Hi! Friend could you land me
    • your car?

    3 I’m sorry I have to ask, but could you land me your car?

    4 Oh! No: my car has broken down and I forgot to repair it.

    • In skill performance only the higher level plans, require conscious
    • attention through controlled processing while these at the lower levels are
    • realized subconsciously through automatic processing.

    • Since human attention capacity is limited fluent performance depends on
    • the establishment of repertoire of lower level plans, which can be processed
    • automatically, so that sufficient attention can be given to the higher level
    • decisions at the early stages Of learning however conscious attention has to be
    • devoted even to lower level plans such as (grammatical structuring and the word
    • selection leading to performance which is more fluent and or contains errors.

    • Learning consists of moving these low level plans into the domain of
    • automatic processing so that they can unfolded fluently in response to
    • decisions at the higher levels.

    • The creative construction model size language learning as proceeding in
    • natural sequences as result of  internal
    • mechanism which are triggered by input from environment. The cognitive skill
    • learning model size second language learning as specialized process one which
    • amenable   to control and one in which
    • productive performance has a clearer role

    • Both models seem to capture important aspect of different people
    • learning experience and may represent alternative routes by which language may
    • enter a person’s communicative competence. In some kinds of situation one kind
    • of learning may predominate but the other will not be excluded.

    • The creative construction model may predominate in natural learning
    • environment. The cognitive kill learning model may predominate in situations
    • involving instructions. 
  27. the interactions Hypothesis explain

    The interactions hypothesis

    • It’s a development of the input hypothesis which we discuss before in
    • this theory, but the prerequisite for learning is still seen as comprehensible
    • input to be may available. The hypothesis argues that this is most likely to
    • occur in  in situations of social
    • interactions these provide opportunities for the negotiation of meaning.
    • Requests for clarification, and comprehension checks as a result it’s more
    • likely that the input will be tuned (made suitable) to the current level of
    • competence and of the individual learner and thus become intake which is
    • available for learning. Researchers have shown that increased opportunities for
    • negotiation are likely to lead to increased comprehension they have also
    • studied the kind classroom interaction task that are most likely to lead to the
    • negotiation of meaning for example pair-work task in which both learners have
    • information a must reach to a decision and solve a problem. 
  28. the Output Hypothesis explain
    The output hypothesis

    • Argues that input is not sufficient and that output plays a significant role
    • in acquisition the need to speak right gives learners opportunities to make
    • hypothesis about how grammatical system works and when meaning are negotiated
    • they get feedback whether these hypothesis are correct. It stimulates them to
    • discuss the language with others. 
  29. the scaffolding explain
    The scaffolding hypothesis

    • In the interaction hypothesis social interaction facilitate the
    • provision of input which in turn triggers acquisition. Social interaction is the
    • most important stimulus for all learning to essential   concepts are scaffolding and the zone of
    • proximal development.

    • Scaffolding refers to the way in which, with support from other learners
    • can achieve level of achievement which they would be to reach independently
    • these supports often comes from an expert such as a tutor and teachers, but
    • learners themselves may provide it for each other.

    • Zone of proximal development is the domain of performance that a learner
    • cannot achieve independently but is capable of achieving with help of
    • scaffolding.

    • The expectation is that what’s currently possible true through
    • scaffolding will later being possible without it.

    • Researchers have shown how learners who help each other during
    • interaction may together produce language that neither could produce alone. The
    • searchers have also shown how language items which learners produce in one
    • occasion with the help of scaffolding may subsequently be incorporated (included)
    • into their independent discourse
  30. The acculturation model and social
    identity theory explain
    • These two theories extend the perspective outward to the wider
    • sociopolitical context of learning both are concerned mainly with experience of
    • emergence in their new host country according to the acculturation model
    • language learning involve a process of acculturation and is there for heavily
    • dependent on the degree of social and psychological distance that learner
    • perceives between themselves and the speakers of the target language.

    • Distance is small and the conditional for learning are more favorable ex
    • when the learners own community shares facilities and has regular contact with
    • the target language community the social identity model is based on the mutual
    • influences that links language and identity. Language us one means by which
    • identity is constructed and identity affects the ways in which we use a
    • language. These identity is seen as dynamic not static and as a person
    • consolidate his or her identity in a new community so his or her ability to
    • speak and learn the language increases. 
  31. Second foreign language teaching explain 
    in other countries ex 
    in morocco ex
    A distinction is widely drawn between two types of situations

    • First one English may be taught in countries where it is not the mother tongue
    • but, nonetheless, has a wide spread special statist within community; it is
    • used for communication in such areas as education broadcasting business, law,
    • government. in this context it is refer to as teaching English as a second
    • language. There are over 60 countries commonwealth. (TESL) notion has also been
    • used to describe the teaching of English to immigrants groups who live within a
    • country where English is the first language IE people who need to speak English
    • at work or in school but they speak their mother tongue at home.

    • 2 English may be taught in countries where it’s not their mother tongue,
    • nor that it has any special statist

    • In this context it is refer to as teaching English as a foreign language(TEFL)
    • such as Morocco etc.