EPP

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EPP
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2014-12-28 11:57:22
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EPP
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  1. Name 3 main themes of EPP
    • 1. Policy and policy-processes are continuously evolving
    • 2. The EU is all about the single market
    • 3. The EU is a quasi federal system
  2. Treaties
    • Founding Treaties:
    • - Paris '52 (ECSC)
    • - Rome '58 (EEC & EURATOM)
    • Others:
    • - Merger Treaty '67 (creation of EC and Council)
    • - Maastricht '93 (preparation EMU + introduction of co-decision and 3 pillar system)
    • - Amsterdam '99 (repealed Merger Treaty, reformed institutions)
    • - Nice 2003 (reformed institutions)
    • - Lisbon 2007 (abolished 3 pillar system)
  3. 4 types of policies
    • "Policy determines politics"
    • - regulatory policies  (control behaviour, esp. economic actors. most used policy)
    • - redistributive policies (transfer financial resources from groups of individuals, regions or countries to others. mostly on national level)
    • - distributive policies (allocations of financial resources and benefits. under the radar, not much used in EU)
    • - constituent policies (rules of governing)
  4. theme 2: EU is all about single market
    • - '57 treaty of rome, creation EEC
    • - '68 Customs Union
    • - '92 single market
    • - '99 EMU (maastricht treaty)

    regulating intra EU trade + involvement of AFSJ, Health and International Trade
  5. theme 3: EU is a quasi federal system
    • Divison of power:
    • - Legislative politics: Council of Minisiters + EP
    • - Executive politics: European Commission + agencies (ECB)
    • - Judicial politics: Court of Justice
  6. name three european integration theories
    • 1. Neofunctionalism/supranationalism
    • 2. Intergovernmentalism
    • 3. Federal Integration
  7. Describe Neofuncationalism
    • - functional and political spillover
    • - automaticity of political union
    • - new neofunctionalism from mid-80s
    • - community method
    • - founding fathers: 
    • Schmitter & Haas '58
  8. Describe functional and political spill-over
    • - functional spill-over:
    • when one policy area is regulated at EU level often it is desirable to regulate others as well (INSERT EXAMPLE)
    • - political spill-over
    • national elites turn their attention increasingly to supranational levels and become favourabl disposed towards the integration process and recognize common interests, increasing the power of supranational institutions.
  9. Describe new neofunctionalism
    • Started mid-80s after crises had passed. Neofunctionalism rebranded as supranationalism.
    • EU outputs conceptualized on a continuum based on:
    • 1. the involvement of supranational organizations
    • 2. the use of supranational rules
    • 3. the involvement of transnational society
    • As these features become more central in a policy area, a self-sustaining dynamic is generated and the EU becomes more supranational. Where these factors are weak, then intergovernmental politics form te bases of policy making.
  10. Describe intergovernmentalism
    • anti-neofuncationalists (realists)
    • eu integrates further only when nation states want that
    • Moravisciks 3 step model + criticism
    • main policy mode = bargaining
    • Hoffmann '66
  11. Describe realism
    • realism is centred on the view that nation states are the central actors in international affairs, and that the key political relations between states are channelled primarily via national governments. 
    • Supranational or transnational actors not important, non-governmental actors have only limited importance.
  12. Hoffmann argued:
    neofunctionalism and transactionalism underplay the importance of the distinction between high and low politics and underestimated the diversity in national interests and policy preferences.
  13. Moravscik's 3 step model (90s)
    • Moravsciks developed perspective called 'liberal intergovernmentalism'
    • 1. liberal theory of national preference formation (state goals can be shaped by domestic pressures and interactions, which are often conditioned by constraints imposed by economic interdependence)
    • 2. assumption of rational state behaviour
    • 3. intergovernmentalist interpretation of international relations (bargaining)
  14. Underlying Moravsciks model is the importance of national preferences for policy development at EU level. In broad terms it is suggested that:
    • 1. Little convergence (similarity) of national prefercence is likely to result in EU policy activity being very difficult to achieve. Example = Education and health.
    • 2. Some, but not total, convergence of national preferences provides foundations, albeid usually contested and oftens shaky, for EU policy activities. (shared interest in driving through policy activity, or marginal interest but not stiff opposition, or policy only for few states such as EMU)
    • 3. Complete or broadly shared convergence, naturally provides most fertile ground for fruitful policy development. Example = internal market.
  15. Criticism on Moravsciks model:
    • Focuses too much on:
    • - formal & final stages of decision-making
    • - treaties and major policy breakthroughs
    • - European Council
  16. Describe Federal Integration Approach
    • - mix of intergovernmentalism and neofunctionalism (heavily relies on idea of spill-over effect)
    • - mix of political and economic thinking
    • - Balassa '62 (economist)
    • - Economic Integration Theory
    • - Federalist Theory
    • - Horizontal & Vertical Federalism
  17. economic integration theory
    • Balassa's ('62) theory. 5 stages:
    • 1. Free trade area
    • 2. Customs union (common customs protections, common tarrifs, etc.)
    • 3. Common market
    • 4. Economic Union (economic & social policies harmonized)
    • 5. Political Union (federal state)
    • Each stage can only be achieved when the previous stage has been completed.
    • EU integration has not entirely followed this model .
  18. negative/positive intgration
    • - negative integration:
    • removing trade barriers (first 3 stages of economic integration according to Balassa)
    • - positive integration: 
    • creating interventionist governmental policies and enabling institutional structures (final 2 stages of economic integration according to Balassa)
  19. Federal theory
    • 5 main forms of federal relations:
    • - vertical federalism (hierarchical allocation of power between EU and member states)
    • - horizontal federalism (focuses on relations between MS)
    • - dual federalism (layer cake - MS are both 'sovereign' and 'co-equal' with EU, as in the treaties)
    • - co-operative federalism (marble cake - EU and MS share responisbilities. this prevails in many policy areas)
    • - fiscal federalism (both MS and EU have access to considerable funding sources but EU can make key dcisions on taxes, grants, etc. doesn't exist yet)
  20. integration theories that best describe EU
    federal theory combined with economic integration theory
  21. What are the principal policy institutions?
    • The Commission
    • The European Council
    • The Council of Minisiters/Europe
    • The European PArliament
    • The Court of Justice of the EU
  22. The European Commission
    • - impartial and acts in EU-wide interest
    • - Policy roles and fuctions: 1) initiator and proposer, 2) mediator and broker, 3) exectuive functions
    • - core responsibility is ensuring EU law is respected and applied
    • - power resources (exclusive right to draft and launch legislative proposals, neutrality)
    • - President Jean-Claude Juncker
  23. The European Council
    • - sets main course of EU
    • - meets twice a year (EU summits)
    • - has most power
    • - President Donald Tusk
    • - unanimity
    • - forum at highest level for building mutual understanding between MS
  24. The Council of Ministers
    • - a.k.a. Council of Europe
    • - 6m rotating presidency (per 3 countries)
    • - 10 configurations
    • - main place for negotiations and bargaining between MS
  25. The European Parliament
    • - President Martin Schulz
    • - political groups, EP committees, plenary sessions
    • - formerly an advisory body, now more power
  26. The Court of Justice of the EU
    • - helped advance european integration
    • - 3 courts; Court of Justice, General Court, EU Civil Service Tribunal (for interal staff cases)
    • - one judge per MS for renewable 6 year term
  27. 5 stages of Policy Cycle
    • 1. Agenda Setting
    • 2. Policy Formulation/Shaping
    • 3. Decision-Making
    • 4. Implementation
    • 5. Policy Evaluation/Feedback
  28. Agenda Setting
    • - Actors: EP, EC, European Council
    • - Government Agenda and Decision Agenda (proposals)
    • - Window of Opportunity/Policy Window when 3 streams come together; problem stream, solution stream, political stream
  29. Policy Shaping
    • - Actors: European Commission
    • - investigation of options
    • - relatively open process in EU
    • - power relations amongst actors affects outcomes
    • - EC holds exclusive 'right of initiative'
  30. Decision-Making
    • - Actors: EP, Council of EU
    • - different procedures (consensus, QMV, co-decision, etc.)
    • - different ways of decision-making
  31. Implementation
    • - Actors: EC, ECJ, MS, agencies, ECB, 
    • - How? Transposition by MS, EC, ECB & other agencies
    • - Judicial Implementation; infringement proceedings, ECJ rulings (cassis de dijon)
    • - directives, regulations or decisions
    • - supported by administrative legislation
  32. Policy Evaluation/Feedback
    • - Actors: EC + citizens/interest groups
    • - Polticial feedback loops (positive/negative)
    • - Evaluation of effectiveness & efficiency
    • - Ex ante, mid-term, Ex post
  33. Cycle is simplification
    • - often stages overlap
    • - actors are active in several stages
    • - sub-decisions
    • - stage 1+2 often go hand in hand
  34. 4 modes of policy-making
    • 1. Community Method
    • 2. Intensive Transgovernmentalism
    • 3. Supranational Centralisation
    • 4. New Modes of Governance
  35. Policy Modes & Arenas
    • - multiple levels: global, EU, national, regional
    • - across levels: EU = EC, EP, Council & outside
    • - arenas allow for 'forum shopping'
  36. policy modes issues
    • - policy area can have multiple modes
    • - system is continuously evolving
    • - issues of power balance between MS & EC, EC/EP/Council, intergovernmental vs supranational
  37. Community Method
    • - EC proposes, CofM (QMV) and EP decide, CJEU adjudicates
    • - from the 1950s
    • - policy area: All EU legislation
  38. Intensive Transgovernmentalism
    • - inrergovernmental co-operation
    • - MS decide unanimously (through European Council of Council of Europe) following intergovernmental negotiations
    • - EP is weak, CJEU largely excluded
    • - right of initiation with both EC and MS
    • - From 1970s
    • - Policy areas: mainly highly sensitive areas. CFSP, CSDP, Enlargement, big decisions (e.g. treaties)
  39. Supranational Centralization
    • - EC (mainly), CJEU, ECB take decisions
    • - more supranational than community method
    • - CJEU from 1960s, rest from 1970s
    • - Policy areas: competition policy, EMU
  40. New Modes
    • - Non-hierarchical and open government (OMC)
    • - EC assists and Council decides (unanimously)
    • - 1990s but more from 2000s
    • - Policy areas: cohesion, social, employment, environment

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