BIO-1120: Chapter 11

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BIO-1120: Chapter 11
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2014-12-26 13:58:01
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  1. Absorption Spectrum
    the range of a pigment's ability to absorb various wavelengths of light; also a graph of such a range
  2. Action Spectrum
    a graph that profiles the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of a radiation in driving a particular process
  3. Autotroph
    an organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organisms or substances derived from other organisms, autotrophs use energy from the sun or from oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic ones
  4. Bundle-Sheath Cells
    in C4 plants, a type of photosynthetic cell arranged into a tightly packed sheaths around the veins of a leaf
  5. Calvin Cycle
    the second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving fixation of atmospheric CO2 and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate
  6. Carbon Fixation
    the initial incorporation of carbon from CO2 into an organic compound by an autotrophic organism (a plant, another photosynthetic organism, or a chemoautotrophic prokaryote)
  7. Carotenoids
    an accessory pigment, either yellow or orange, in the chloroplasts of plants and in some prokaryotes; by absorbing wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot, carotenoids broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis
  8. Chlorophyll
    a green pigment located in membranes within the chloroplasts of plants and algae and in the membranes of certain prokaryotes; chlorophyll a participates directly in the light reactions, which convert solar energy to chemical energy
  9. Chlorophyll a
    a photosynthetic pigment that participates directly in the light reactions, which convert solar energy to chemical energy
  10. Chlorophyll b
    an accessory photosynthetic pigment that transfers energy to chlorophyll a
  11. C3 Plant
    a plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate
  12. C4 Plants
    a plant in which the Calvin cycle is preceded by reactions that incorporate CO2 into a four-carbon compound, the end product of which supplies CO2 for the Calvin cycle
  13. Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM)
    an adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions, first discovered in the family Crassulaceae; in this process, a plant takes up CO2 and incorporates it into a variety of organic acids at night; during the day, CO2 is released from organic acids for use in the Calvin Cycle
  14. Cyclic Electron Flow
    a route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves only one photosystem and that produces ATP but not NADPH or O2
  15. Electromagnetic Spectrum
    the entire spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, ranging in wavelength from less than a nanometer to more than a kilometer
  16. Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate (G3P)
    a three-carbon carbohydrate that is the direct product of the Calvin cycle; it is also an intermediate in glycolysis
  17. Heterotroph
    an organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or substances derived from them
  18. Light-Harvesting Complex
    a complex of proteins associated with pigment molecules (including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids) that captures light energy and transfers it to reaction-center pigments in a photosystem
  19. Light Reactions
    the first of two major stages in photosynthesis (preceding the Calvin cycle); these reactions, which occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast or on membranes of certain prokaryotes, convert solar energy to chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, releasing oxygen in the process
  20. Linear Electron Flow
    a route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves both photosystems (I and II) and produces ATP, NADPH, and O2; the net electron flow is from H2O to NADP+
  21. Mesophyll
    leaf cells specialized for photosynthesis; in C3 and CAM plants, mesophyll cells are located between the upper and lower epidermis; in C4 plants, they a re located between the bundle-sheath cells and the epidermis
  22. PEP Carboxylase
    an enzyme that adds CO2 to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to form oxaloacetate in mesophyll cells of C4 plants; it acts prior to photosynthe
  23. Photon
    a quantum, or discrete quantity, of light energy that behaves as if it were a particle
  24. Photophosphorylation
    the process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of chemiosmosis, using a proton-motive force generated across the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast or the membrane of certain prokaryotes during the light reactions of photosynthesis
  25. Photorespiration
    a metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen and ATP, releases carbon dioxide, and decreases the photosynthetic output; photorespiration generally occurs on hot, dry, and bright days, when stomata close and the O2/CO2 ratio in the leaf increases, favoring the binding of O2 rather than CO2 by rubisco
  26. Photosynthesis
    the conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in sugars or other organic compounds; occurs in plants algae, and certain prokaryotes
  27. Photosystem
    a light-capturing unit located in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast or in the membrane of some prokaryotes, consisting of a reaction-center complex surrounded by numerous light-harvesting complexes,; there are two types of photosystems, I and II; they absorb light best at different wavelengths
  28. Photosystem I (PS I)
    a light-capturing unit in a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane or in the membrane of some prokaryotes; it has two molecules of P700 chlorophyll a at its reaction center
  29. Photosystem II (PS II)
    one of two light-capturing units in a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane or in the membrane of some prokaryotes; it has two molecules of P680 chlorophyll a at its reaction center
  30. Primary Electron Acceptor
    in the thylakoid membrane of a chloroplast or in the membrane of some prokaryotes, a specialized molecule that shares the reaction-center complex with a pair of chlorphyll a molecules and that accepts an electron from them
  31. Reaction-Center Complex
    a complex of proteins associated with a special pair of chlorphyll a molecules and a primary electron acceptor; located centrally in a photosystem, this complex triggers the light reactions of photosynthesis; excited by light energy, the pair of chlorophylls donates an electron to the primary electron acceptor, which passes an electron to an electron transport chain
  32. Reduction
    the complex or partial additions of electrons to a substance involved in a redox reaciton
  33. Rubisco
    ribolose biphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase-oxygenase, the enzyme that normally catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 to RuBP); when excess O2 is present or CO2 levels are low, rubisco can bind oxygen, resulting in photorespiration
  34. Spectrophotometer
    an instrument that measures the proportions of light of different wavelengths absorbed and transmitted by a pigment solution
  35. Stoma
    a microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant
  36. Stroma
    the dense fluid within the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane and containing ribosomes and DNA: involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water
  37. Thylakoid
    a flattened, membranous sac inside a chlorplast; thylakoids often exist in stacks called grana that are interconnected; their membranes contain molecular "machinery" used to convert light energy to chemical energy
  38. Visible Light
    that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be detected as various colors by the human eye, ranging in wavelength from about 380 nm to about 750 nm
  39. Wavelength
    the distance between crests of waves, such as those of the electromagnetic spectrum

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