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2014-12-27 05:55:13
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  1. What is the most common occupation cancer in India? [AI 08]
    Skin cancer
  2. Which industry workers are at increased risk of  paranasal sinus malignancy?
    • Hardwood furniture making industry. [AIIMS 1997,UP 1998]
    • Nickel refining. [AIIMS 1992]

    Nickel exposure is also associated  with lung cancer.
  3. What are the carcinogens associated with bladder cancer?
    • Benzidine[UP 01]
    • 2-Nepthylamine
    • 4-aminobiphenyl
  4. What are the health hazards of dye industry? [UP 95, AI 98,01]
    • Asthma
    • Skin and  bladder  and kidney disease
    • Precancerous lesions

    Rehn in 1894 noted that neoplasm of urinary bladder [AIIMS 92]was common in aniline dye factories. Subsequent investigations proved that it was β-naphthylamine (an impurity of aniline) and not aniline which was the real culprit.
  5. What is the most important component of the environmental pollution in Kathmandu? [IOM 01]
    Smoke and dust
  6. Name the gases causing green house effect? [AI 97]
    • CO[IOM 02], 
    • Methane (CH4),
    • Nitrous oxide (N2O),
    • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
  7. Name biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste?
    Biodegradable waste is a type of waste which can be broken down, in a reasonable amount of time, into its base compounds by micro-organisms and other living things, regardless of what those compounds may be. E.g. green waste, food waste, paper waste

    Non biodegradable waste is waste that cannot be broken down naturally either by air, climate, moisture or soil. This kind of waste cannot be naturally dissolved into the land. Some of the most common non biodegradable products are plastic bags, detergent, sulphur,[IOM 2063] bottles, tin cans and even computer hardware.
  8. What is Hardy-Weinberg rule?
    The rule is related to population genetics. [JIPMER 1998] . The Hardy-Weinberg law states that "the relative frequencies of each gene allele tends to remain constant from generation to generation" in the absence of forces that change the gene frequencies. Thus, the study of gene frequencies, and the influences which operate to alter the ''gene pool" and their long-term consequences is the central theme in population genetics.
  9. What is neurolathyrism?
    Neurolathyrism is a crippling disease of the nervous system characterised by gradually developing spastic paralysis of lower limbs, occurring mostly in adults consuming the pulse, Lathyrus sativus in large quantities.

    The toxin present in lathyrus seeds has been identified as Beta oxalyl amino alanine (BOAA) [AI 1992, MANIPAL 2002]
  10. What is epidemic dropsy? [AIIMS 1996]
    Epidemic dropsy is because of toxic alkaloid Sanguinarine form argemone oil. This toxic substance interferes with oxidation of pyruvic acid which accumulates in blood.

    • The symptoms of epidemic dropsy consists of
    • Sudden, non-inflammatory, bilateral swelling of legs, often associated with diarrhea.
    • Dyspnea, cardiac failure and death may follow.
    • Some patients may develop glaucoma.
    • The disease may develop at all ages except breast-fed infants.
  11. What causes endemic ascitis? [UP 2001]
    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids
  12. What are various types of child placement?
    Orphanages - children who have no home or who for some reason could not be cared for by their parents.

    Foster homes – several types of facilities for rearing children other than in their natural families. A good foster home will provide the child with security, love and affection.

    Borstals – boys >16 years who are too difficult to be handled in a certified school or have misbehaved there are sent to borstals. [AIIMS 81]

    Remand Homes – the child is placed under the care of doctore, psychiatrists and other trained personnel.
  13. What is the recommended calories and protein in mid-day school meal? [AI 1997]
    Mid day school meal should provide at least one-third of the daily calorie requirement and about half of daily protein requirement of the child.